Aeration: The process of exposing a bulk material, such as compost, to air, or of
charging a liquid with a gas or a mixture of gases. Forced aeration refers to the use of
blowers in compost piles.
Aerobic Digestion: the breakdown of organic components by microbial action in
the presence of oxygen. See Anaerobic Digestion.
Aerobic Respiration: the oxidation of organic compounds by oxygen.
Aerobic: a biochemical process or condition occurring in the presence of oxygen.
Acceleration: A vector quantity describing the time rate of change of velocity
of a body in relation to time measured in feet (meters) per second squared. It describes
the rate at which velocity is increasing or decreasing (deceleration). The term
acceleration and deceleration are often used interchangeably because most products respond
similarly to a rapid start or a rapid stop. Both terms are expressed in G's.
Accelerometer: Piece of drop test equipment which is attached to the packaged
product. It measures and transmits the acceleration, or G level, experienced by the
Adhesive: Material capable of adhering one surface to another. As used in
connection with fiber boxes: a material to glue plies of solid fiberboard, to glue facings
to corrugated medium in combined corrugated board, to glue the overlapping sides of a box
forming the manufacture's joint or to the flaps in closing a slotted box.
Air Classification: a process in which a stream of air is used to separate mixed
material according to the size, density, and aerodynamic drag of the pieces.
Air Pollutant: a substance that, when present in the atmosphere in large enough
concentrations, adversely affects the environment.
Air Pollution: an impaired condition of the atmosphere that results because
certain substances present in it are too numerous or are of a noxious character.
Air Quality Standards: levels below which a specific substance or combination of
substances must be kept in the atmosphere as established by legislation.
Algal Bloom: population explosion of algae (simple one-celled or many-celled,
usually aquatic, plants) in surface waters. Algal blooms are associated with nutrient-rich
run-off from composting facilities or landfills.
Anaerobic: a biochemical process or condition occurring in the absence of
Anaerobic Digestion: the breakdown of organic components by microbial components
in the absence of oxygen.
Anaerobic Respiration: a type of respiration among some bacteria in which an
inorganic oxidant (N03, S04) other than oxygen is used.
ANSI: American National Standards, Institute.
Anti-Static Materials: Those materials that resist triboelectric charging and
produce minimal static charges when separated from themselves or other materials. This is
brought about by a thin lubricious layer created by an anti-static agent which reduces
frictional effects during rubbing and separation. Anti-static packaging material have a
surface resistivity of between 105 -1013 ohms per square.
API: American Paper Institute
Aquifer: a water-bearing formation that provides a ground water reservoir.
Ash: inorganic residue remaining after ignition of combustible substances.
Quantity determined by definite prescribed methods. Ash may not be identical, in
composition or quantity, with the inorganic substances present in the material before
ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials. Committee which generates
packaging test standards in the United States. The oldest and largest such committee, it
has generated over 100 packaging standards since its inception in 1914.
Audit: the inspection of all or portions of a process to assure conformance to
the specified requirements involved.
Auto Rotation: Movement of a cushioned product within the carton on impact.
Measured in degrees, the variance is usually limited to one axis.
Axis: Orientation of a package. Packaged products have 3 axes (x, y, z), which
represent the end to end, side to side, and top to bottom orientations.
Back-End-Recovery: an engineered system that provides for collection of discrete
reusable materials from mixed wastes which have been burned or treated.
Back-End-System: a combination of system components that changes the chemical
properties of the waste and/or converts its components into energy or compost. See front
Bag: A pre-formed container made of flexible material generally enclosed on all
sides except one which forms an opening that may or may not be sealed after loading. It is
normally constructed from one piece of material that has been folded over and sealed on
Baghouse: an municipal waste combustion facility air emission control device
consisting of a series of fabric filters through which MWC flue gases are passed to remove
particulates prior to atmospheric dispersion.
Baler: a machine used to compress recyclables into bundles to reduce volume.
Balers are often used on newspaper, plastics, and corrugated cardboard.
Bar Code: A grouping of parallel rectangular bars and spaces that together
represent data elements or characters in a particular symbology.
Bar Code Symbol: A graphic bar code made up of parallel bars and spaces of
various widths. A bar code symbol contains a leading quiet zone, start character, data
characters including check digit (if any), stop character, and a trailing quiet zone.
Basis Weight (of containerboard): Weight of linerboard or corrugated medium
expressed in terms of pounds per 1,000 square feet (MSF).
Bearing Surface: The number of square inches of material required on each side
of the product. Takes into account the size of the product relative to its weight. To
calculate, divide the weight of the product by the static loading the product will apply
to the foam strength and thickness selected.
Bending: In the term "proper bending qualities" - the containerboard
must be capable of bending along creases or score lines in forming the box so that the
containerboard is not ruptured to a point where it seriously weakens the box.
Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD): a measure of the amount of oxygen used by
micro-organisms to break down organic waste materials in water. (1)
Biodegradability: The ability of the physical and/or chemical structure of a
compound to be substantially broken-down by microorganisms within a specified period of
time under defined environmental exposure conditions.
Biodegradable: 1. That which is able to be decomposed by bacterial action. 2. A
physical and/or chemical structure of a material capable of being incorporated into the
environmental processes through the action of microorganisms.
Biodegradable Material: waste material which is capable of being broken down by
microorganisms into simple, stable compounds such as carbon dioxide and water. Most
organic wastes, such as food wastes and paper, are biodegradable.
Biogasification: a resource recovery process for the extraction of methane
resulting from anaerobic decomposition of organic material. (1)
Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD): the quantity of dissolved oxygen needed to
satisfy the metabolic requirements of microorganisms living in water where there is a lot
of organic material. Industrial effluents high in organic substances create a high BOD in
the receiving water, thereby reducing oxygen levels in that water.
Board: Abbreviation for various paperboards.
Bottle Bill: a law requiring deposits on beverage containers (see Container
Box: A rigid container having closed faces and completely enclosed the contents.
Box Maker: Box maker is meant a corrugated or solid fiber box manufacturing
establishment which at least has the equipment to score, slot, print and join corrugated
or solid fiber sheets into boxes, which equipment is regularly utilized in the production
of fiber boxes in commercial quantities.
BMC: Box Maker Certificate. A statement printed on a corrugated fiberboard box
or a solid fiberboard box guaranteeing that all applicable construction requirements of
the carriers have been observed and identifying and locating the box maker. (Also, see Box
Broker: an individual or group of individuals that act as an agent or
intermediary between the sellers and buyers of recyclable materials.
BTU (British Thermal Unit): used as a unit of measure for the amount of energy a
given material contains (e.g., energy released as heat during combustion is measured in
Btu's. Technically, one Btu is the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of
one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit.
Buckling: The non-uniform compression of a cushion. When buckling occurs, the
energy of an impact is not transferred evenly throughout the cushion and more shock is
transferred to package contents. Buckling usually occurs when cushions become too tall and
Buffer Zone: neutral area which acts as a protective barrier separating two
conflicting forces. An area which acts to minimize the impact of pollutants on the
environment or public welfare. For example, a buffer zone is established between a
composting facility and neighboring residents to minimize odor problems.
Built-Up: Multiple layers of corrugated pads glued together to give a desired
thickness; normally used for interior packing.
Bulking Agent: a material used to add volume to another material to make it more
porous to air flow. For example, municipal solid waste may act as a bulking a gent when
mixed with water treatment sludge.
Bulky Waste: large items of refuse including, but not limited to, appliances,
furniture, large auto parts, non-hazardous construction and demolition materials, trees,
branches and stumps which cannot be handled by normal solid waste processing, collection
and disposal methods.
Bundle: A shipping unit of two or more articles wrapped and fastened together by
Burning Rate: the quantity of material per unit time -charged to a furnace, or
the amount of heat released during combustion. A rate usually expressed in pounds of
material per square foot of burning area per hour or in B.T.U. per square foot of burning
area per hour.
Bursting Strength: The strength of material in pounds per square inch, as
measured by the Cady or Mullen tester.
Buy-Back Center: a facility where individuals bring recyclables in exchange for
Caliper: The thickness of a sheet measured under specified conditions, expressed in
thousandths of an inch. Thousandths of an inch are often called "points."
Capacitance: The ability of a component or material to store an electric charge.
The capacitance of a charged conductor is the ratio of its charge to its voltage (i.e.,
C=Q/V). Capacitance is measured in terms of "farads." Since the farad is such a
very large number, its values are usually expressed in millionths of a farad or
"microfarads" or millionths of millionths of a farad or "picofarads."
Carcinogen: any agent - biological, chemical, radioactive - that causes cancer.
Cardboard: A term erroneously used as a synonym for paperboard or corrugated.
Not a recognized term in container materials.
Carrier Reference Number: The reference number (CRN, waybill, pro number)
assigned or provided by the carrier that identifies a package or group of packages
transported by the carrier.
Cellular Material: Is material whose structure is made up of visible cells or
pores, such as foam material.
Cellulosic: A substance made of plant parts including wood.
Centralized Yard Waste Composting: system utilizing a central facility within a
politically defined area with the purpose of composting yard wastes.
Charge: Measured in coulombs or fractions thereof. The static charge on a body
is measured by the number of separated electrons on the body (negative charge) or the
number of separated electrons not on the body (positive charge). Since electrons cannot be
destroyed, an electron removed from one body must go to another body, leaving behind a
positive void. Thus, there are always equal and opposite charges produced.
Chipboard: A package generally made from reclaimed paper stock. Used for many
purposes including partitions and the filler (center ply or plies) of solid fiberboard.
Class I Solid Waste Disposal Area: a disposal facility which receives an average
of 20 tons or more per day, if scales are available, or 50 cubic yards or more per day of
solid waste, as measured in-place, after covering, and which receives an initial cover
Class II Solid Waste Disposal Area: a disposal facility which receives an
average of less than 50 cubic yards per day of solid waste, as measured in-place, after
covering, and which receives an initial cover at least once every 4 days.
Classification, Freight: Publications maintained by the railroads and motor
common carriers which include the rules and regulations governing the acceptance of
freight in transportation. These rules designate the forms of packaging which are
acceptable and specify the minimum requirements for shipping containers. These must be met
if a penalty increase in freight charges is to be avoided.
Clean Air Act: Act passed by Congress to have the air "safe enough to
protect the public's health" by May 31, 1975. Required the setting of National
Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for major primary air pollutants.
Clean Water Act: Act passed by congress to protect the nation's water resources.
Requires EPA to establish a system of national effluent standards for major water
pollutants, requires all municipalities to use secondary sewage treatment by 1988, sets
interim goals of making all US waters safe for fishing and swimming, allows point source
discharges of pollutants into waterways only with a permit from EPA, requires all
industries to use the best practicable technology (BPT) for control of conventional and
non-conventional pollutants and to use the best available technology (BAT) that is
reasonable or affordable.
Cleaned Steel Cans: tin coated or tin free, hydraulically or mechanically
compressed to the size, weight and shape requirements of the customer. May include
aluminum tops of beverage cans, but must be free of aluminum cans, loose tin or terne
plate, dirt, garbage, non-ferrous metals (except for those used in can construction), and
nonmetallics of any kind.
Co-Composting: simultaneous composting of two or more diverse waste streams.
Coal Equivalent of Fuel: the quantity of coal of stated which would be required
to supply the B.T.U. equivalent to the comparative fuel(s). The B.T.U. content of fuels is
generally divided by the representative heating value of coal.
Coated Paper: Paper with a surface that has been treated with clay or other
Coating: A paint, varnish, lacquer or other finish used to create a protective
and/or decorative layer.
Code 39: The 3 of 9 bar code is a variable length, discrete, self-checking,
bi-directional, alphanumeric bar code. Its character set contains 43 meaningful
characters: 0-9, a-z, -, ., $, /, %, and space. Each character is composed of nine
elements: five bars and four spaces. Three of the elements are wide (binary value = 1),
and six elements are narrow (binary value = 0). An additional common character (*) is used
for bother start and stop delimiters.
Collection: the organized removal of accumulated containerized solid waste from
the generating source.
CONTRACT COLLECTION - Collection of solid waste carried out in accordance with a written
agreement in which the rights and duties of the contractual parties are set forth.
CURB COLLECTION - Collection of solid waste from containers placed adjacent to a
FRANCHISE COLLECTION - Collection made by a private firm that is given exclusive right to
collect for a fee paid by customers in a specific territory or from specific types of
MUNICIPAL COLLECTION - Collection of solid waste by public employees and equipment under
the supervision and direction of municipal authorities.
PRIVATE COLLECTION - Collection of solid waste by individuals or companies from
residential, commercial, or industrial premises; the arrangements for the service are made
directly between the owner or occupier of the premises and the collector.
Collector Particulate (types) Bag-Filter: a filter in which the medium is a
fabric cylindrical bag.
CYCLONE - an inlet gas stream is made to move vertically; centrifugal forces tend to drive
suspended particles to the wall of the cyclone.
DUST - any device used to remove particulate from a gas stream.
FLY ASH - removes fly ash from combustion gases.
MECHANICAL - inertial and gravitational forces separate dry dust from gas.
MULTICYCLONE - an assembly of cyclone tubes operating in parallel.
Collector: handles the collection of post-consumer recyclables in any of several
ways -- curbside collection, operation of community drop-off sites, or management of
community, municipal or regional recycling centers.
Combined Board: The term used to indicate a completely fabricated sheet
assembled from several components, such as 'corrugated' fiberboard or 'solid' fiberboard.
Combustible Waste: discarded material capable of combustion includes paper,
corrugated fiberboard, cartons, wood, boxes, excelsior, plastic, rags, bedding, leather,
trimmings, household waste.
Combustion: the rapid chemical reaction of oxygen with a substance which results
in the evolution of heat and usually light.
Combustion Gases: the mixture of gases and vapors produced by combustion.
Commercial Waste: waste materials originating in wholesale, retail,
institutional, or service establishments such as office buildings, stores, markets,
theaters, hotels and warehouses.
Commingled Plastic: a mixture of plastics, the components of which may have
widely differing properties.
Commingled Recyclables: A mixture of several recyclable materials into one
Compact: to reduce size or dimensions or increase density without adding or
Compaction Ratio: the volume a package occupies after undergoing a standardized
test which is representative of conditions in municipal landfills divided by its original
volume as manufactured.
Compactor: power-driven device used to compress materials to a smaller volume.
Components: A small part or product.
Composites: Materials that are made up of one or more different materials such
as screened, woven, deposited or evaporated films, or painted materials of different
Compost: the relatively stable decomposed organic material resulting from the
composting process. Also referred to as humus.
Compostable: capable of undergoing physical, chemical, thermal, and biological
decomposition in a compost facility such that the finished compost ultimately mineralizes
into carbon dioxide, water, and biomass, leaving no distinguishable, persistent,
synthetic, or toxic residues.
Composting: 1. The process of decomposing organic matter by microorganisms. 2.
The controlled biological decomposition of organic solid waste under aerobic conditions.
Composting Types: MECHANICAL - the material is continuously mechanically mixed
VENTILATED CELL - the material is mixed and aerated by being dropped through a vertical
series of ventilated cells.
WINDROW - the material is placed in open-air windrows, piles, or ventilated bins or pits
and is occasionally turned or mixed. The process may be anaerobic or aerobic.
Compressive Creep: The loss of thickness of material under a constant load over
a period of time. As a general rule, creep of 10% is recognized as a practical limit.
Computer Printout Paper: consists of white sulphite or sulfate papers in forms
manufacture for use in data processing machines. This grade may contain colored stripes
and/or computer printing, and may contain not more than 5% of groundwood in the packing.
All stock must be untreated and uncoated.
CONEG: Coalition of Northeastern Governors, representing: Connecticut, Maine,
Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and
Conductive Materials: Those materials that are either metal, carbon particles or
other conductive materials, or whose surface has been treated with such through a process
of lacquering, plating, metallizing, or printing. These materials seldom charge when
separated from one another but can produce charging when separated from non-conductive
surfaces. Surface resistivity measures 105 ohms per square or less.
Conformance Methods: approaches used to obtain the stipulated or specified
Construction and Demolition Wastes: waste building materials and rubble
resulting from construction, remodeling, repair and demolition operations on houses,
commercial buildings, pavements and other structures.
Consumer Waste: Materials which have been used and discarded by the buyer, or
customer, as opposed to wastes or scrap created in the manufacturing process.
Container: A box or receptacle which is usually the outer protection used in
packaging goods for shipment.
Container Board: The paperboard components (linerboard, corrugating material,
filler chip) from which corrugated and solid fiberboard are manufactured.
Container Deposit Legislation: laws that require monetary deposits to be levied
on beverage containers. The money is returned to the consumer when the containers are
returned to the retailer. Also called "Bottle Bills."
Contaminant: That which contaminates or makes impure by contact or mixture and
effects a material's properties. Non-homogeneous materials which corrupts the recycling or
reprocessing of another material (i.e., paper and adhesives are contaminants of plastic
foam recycling process).
Conveyable: A product which meets the criteria to be transported on a conveyor
Conveyor Sortation System: An automated method to divert product to the
appropriate shipping lane.
Corrugated Board: Single Faced: The structure formed by one corrugated member
glued to one flat facing.
Corrugated Board: Single wall: Also known as "Double Faced". The
structure formed by one corrugated inner member glued between two flat facings.
Corrugated Board: Double Wall: The structure formed by three flat facings and
two intermediate corrugated members.
Corrugated Board: Triple Wall: The structure formed by four flat facings and
three intermediate corrugated members.
Corrugated Material or Corrugating Medium: Paperboard used in forming the fluted
portion of the corrugated board.
Corrugator: A machine which usually takes containerboard from three rolls and
combines it into a corrugated board consisting of two exterior facings and an intermediate
fluted member. The corrugator forms the intermediate material into a series of arched
trusses and attaches the facings to them with adhesive applied at the tips of the flutes.
The resulting board is called single wall corrugated fiberboard. By taking containerboard
from five rolls, it also produces a corrugated board, commonly known as double wall,
consisting of three facings and two corrugated mediums. By adding another corrugated
medium and facings, triple wall corrugated fiberboard is produced. The machine also cuts
the fiberboard to size and may score it in one direction.
Cradle to Grave: an expression to indicate consideration from the point of
initial conception of a packaging material or design through its entire useful life and
eventual disposal. This disposal may be after many successful reuses and then hopefully by
being put into an effective recycling channel.
Crown Flint Glass: an optical crown glass bordering on optical flint glass
because of the addition of a substantial content of lead oxide and with a somewhat higher
dispersion than optical crown glass.
Cullet: 1. Clean, generally color-sorted, crushed glass used to make new glass
products. 2. Waste or broken glass, usually suitable as an addition to raw batch material.
FOREIGN CULLET - cullet from an outside source.
DOMESTIC or FACTORY CULLET - cullet from within the plant.
Curbside Collection: programs where recyclable materials are collected at the
curb, often from special containers, to be brought to various processing facilities.
Current: The flow of electrons past a certain point in a specified period of
time, measured in amperes or fractions thereof. Current is measured in terms of electrons
per second, but since this number would be tremendously large, it is usually stated in
terms of "coulombs per second." 1 coulomb per second = 1 ampere.
Cushion Curve: Shows how a packaging material of a certain strength and
thickness behaves at different impact levels. Curves are generated by dropping a series of
known weights onto a foam sample from a specific height and measuring the amount of the
foam allows to be transferred. Each point in the curve represents how much loading a
product of known weight will apply to a cushion, and how much shock the cushion will allow
to be transferred to the product.
Cushioning Material: A material used to isolate or reduce the effect of
externally applied shock or vibration forces, or both.
Cuttings: consists of baled new cuttings of paperboard such as are used in the
manufacture of folding paper cartons, set-up boxes and similar boxboard products.
Data Identifier: A specified character string which defines the specific intended
use of the data that immediately follows. The DI is not considered part of the data it
proceeds. The DI shall be an alphanumeric character as defined by ANS FACT-1, Data
Decay Rate: The period of time it takes an electrical charge to be dissipated by
an ESD protective field. Measured in seconds or fractions thereof.
Decomposition: 1. The reduction of the net energy level and change in chemical
composition of organic matter, as by microorganisms. 2. Breaking down into component parts
or basic elements.
Deflection, Corrugated: As used in compression testing, refers to the
deformation or reduction in dimensions in the testing direction between established
pre-load and ultimate failure load.
Deflection, Foam: The amount of impact that is filtered as the shock travels
from the outer perimeter of the package to the unit itself.
Deglasser: a separator used to remove small particles of glass, metal and other
products from compost. In addition, it utilizes a pulsed, rising column of air to separate
heavy items contained in compost.
Degradable: Capable of undergoing a change in chemical structure under specific
environmental conditions that result in loss of properties that may vary as measured by
standard test methods appropriate to a material and its application in a period of time
that determines its classification.
Deink: to remove ink, filler and other extraneous materials from reusable paper
by mechanical, hydraulic and chemical treatment.
Dense Media Separation: a separation process of non- ferrous metals from other
large particles such as rubber, plastic, bone or leather, using a fluid solution with a
specific gravity about twice that of water. The metal fraction sinks in the solution while
other materials float.
Densified Refuse-Derived Fuel(d-RDF): a refuse-derived fuel that has been
processed to produce briquettes, pellets, or cubes.
Density: The ratio of foam cells per square inch. It is the amount of cells in
any given volume of foam. Density is the basic measure by which foam is considered.
Cushioning curves are developed in relation to density.
Detinning: recovering tin from "tin" cans by a chemical process which
makes the remaining steel more easily recycled.
Die-Cut, Corrugated: A cut made with special steel rule dies. The act of making
a part or container which is cut and scored to shape by such tools. Also used to denote a
board which has been die-cut.
Die-Cut, Foam: Process by which polyethylene and polyurethane foams are cut to
desired shapes and sizes. A machine operation, it necessitates the use of a tool, or die.
Dielectric Breakdown: A threshold effect in a dielectric medium where, at some
electric field strength across the medium, bound electrons become unbound and travel
through the medium as a current. In solid medium, the current is permanently damaged. The
units of measurements are usually volts per unit of thickness.
Dimensions: -Depth: The distance between the innermost surfaces of the box
measured perpendicular to the length and width.
Dimensions: -Length: The larger of the two inner dimensions of the open face.
Dimensions: -Width: The lesser of the two inner dimensions of the open face.
Dioxin: 1. General term applied to any of 75 structurally related chlorinated
compounds, the most toxic of which is 2,3,7,8 - tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). 2.
Heterocyclic hydrocarbons that occur as toxic impurities, especially in herbicides.
Displacement: The magnitude of movement of a body, point, or surface from a
fixed reference point, measured in inches (meters).
Disposable: A disposable package is one that will be discarded after one use.
Disposal: the discharge, deposit, injection, dumping, spilling, leaking, or
placing of any solid waste or hazardous waste into or upon any land or water so that such
solid waste or hazardous waste or any constituent thereof may enter other lands or be
emitted into the air or discharged into any waters including ground waters, or otherwise
enter the environment.
OCEAN - deposition of waste into an ocean or estuarine body of water.
ON-SITE - utilization of methods or processes to eliminate or reduce volume of solid waste
on the property of the generator.
WASTE - an orderly process of discarding useless or unwanted material.
Diversion Rate: a measure of the amount of waste material being diverted for
recycling compared with the total amount that was previously thrown away.
Domestic Refuse: solid wastes which normally originate in residential household
or multifamily units. See Solid Waste.
Drop Height: Represents a given probability of impact. Selection of height is
dependent on the size and weight of a packaged product.
Drop-Off Center: a method of collecting recyclable or compostable materials in
which the materials are taken by individuals to collection sites and deposited in to
Drop Test: Process of determining the level of impact a packaged product
experiences when dropped from a pre-determined height. The drop height is dependent on the
weight of the unit.
Dump: an unmonitored land area where unrestricted unloading of refuse is done
without requiring cover material to be spread. (As opposed to Landfill).
Dumping: an indiscriminate method of disposing of solid waste.
Dumping Fee: the charge for processing trash or solid waste at an incinerator or
sanitary landfill. This is usually done on a weight basis but can also be on a volume or
worst case basis.
Dumpster: a large metal movable container for the collection and transportation
of trash for disposal usually to incinerators or sanitary landfills.
Duration: Time element of the impact pulse of a drop test. If an impact has a
radical spike, and little resonance the duration is short. However, if the pulse is more
curved, the duration is longer. Measured in milliseconds.
Ecology: the science that deals with the interrelationships of organisms and their
living and nonliving surroundings.
Ecosystem: the interdependence of organisms and their surroundings.
Eddy Current Separator: a device which passes a varying magnetic field through
feed material, thereby inducing eddy currents in the nonferrous metals present in the
feed. The eddy currents counteract the magnetic field and exert a repelling force on the
metals, separating them from the field and the remainder of the feed.
Edge Crush Test (ECT): (Also known as Edgewise Compression Test or Short Column
Crush Test) - The measure of the edgewise compressive strength of a short column of
corrugated fiberboard. This property, in combination with the caliper of the combined
board and the perimeter of the container, relates to the top-to-bottom compressive
strength of corrugated fiberboard boxes.
Effluent: 1. Any solid, liquid or gas which enters the environment as a
by-product of a man-oriented process. The substances that flow out of a designated source.
2. The liquid waste of sewage and industrial processing. Also known as discharge liquor.
Effluent Seepage: diffuse discharge onto the ground of liquids that have
percolated through a mass; may contain dissolved or suspended materials.
Electrodynamic Separator: utilizes a rotating drum or other moving pole in place
of one or more fixed charged plates (poles). Can be used to separate electrical conductive
material (e.g., non-ferrous metal) from nonconductive material (e.g., organics).
Electronic-Optical Sorter: separates glass from stones and pieces of ceramics;
sorts the glass according to color. Photoelectric detector determines the color or opacity
of the material and blasts of air deflect the pieces into the proper containers.
Electromagnetic Shield: Is a screen or other housing placed around devices or
circuits to reduce the effect of both electric and magnetic fields on or by them. The
electromagnetic field results from the presence of a rapidly moving electric field (RF)
and its associated magnetic field. Shielding from electromagnetic interference
(abbreviated EMI) is a combination of reflection and absorption of electromagnetic energy
by the material. Reflection occurs at the surface much like the reflection of light at an
air-to-water interface, and is not usually affected by shield thickness. Absorption,
however, occurs within the shield and is highly dependent on thickness. The best shielding
materials are ferric, i.e., steel, nickel, etc. Aluminum is often used in less critical
Electron: A negatively charged particle with an electrical charge equal to 1.6 x
Electrostatic Field: The region surrounding an electrically charged object in
which another electrical charge can be induced and will experience a force.
Quantitatively, it is the voltage gradient between two points at different potentials.
Electrostatic Precipitator: device for removing particulate matter from MWC
facility air emissions. It works by causing the particles to become electrostatically
charged and then attracting them to an oppositely charged plate, where they are
precipitated out of the air.
Electrostatic Shield: A material that acts as a barrier or enclosure that
prevents the penetration of an electrostatic field. An electrostatic shield, however, may
not offer much protection against the effects of electromagnetic interference (EMI). EMI
shields, however, are good electrostatic shields.
Electrostatic Shielding Material: Those materials which are capable of
attenuating an electrostatic field, so that its effects do not reach the stored or
contained items and produce damage.
Electrostatic Separator: a device utilizing the principle that electrical
conductors lose an induced static charge faster than insulators. In this way, an
electrostatic sorter can separate conducting materials (e.g., aluminum) from
non-conducting ones (e.g., glass) after the particles are charged in a high voltage direct
current electrical field.
Elutriation: a process wherein materials are separated according to differences
in their densities and/or shapes in a counter-current stream of a fluid, usually water,
gas or air.
EMI: Abbreviation for electromagnetic interference. Sources are static, sparks,
lightning, radar, radio and TV transmission, brush motors, line transients, etc. By line
conduction or air propagation, EMI can induce undesirable voltage signals in electronic
equipment causing malfunction and occasionally component damage. Protection against EMI
usually requires the use of shields, filters, and special circuit design.
Emission: 1. Discharge of a gas into atmospheric circulation. 2. Material
released into the air either by a discrete source (primary emission) or as a result of a
photochemical reaction or chain of reactions (secondary emission). The total of substances
exhausted into the atmosphere.
Emission Standard: a rule or measurement established to regulate or control the
amount of a given constituent that may be discharged into the outdoor atmosphere.
Emulsion: a liquid that is a mixture of liquids that do not dissolve in each
other. In an emulsion, one of the liquids contains minute droplets of the other, which are
evenly distributed throughout.
End Product: any finished item which is not modified prior to serving its
intended end use.
End Product Manufacturing: produces from recycled material either a finished
product or a component for a finished product.
Energy Recovery: Energy resource recovery where a part, or all, of the waste
stream is processed to utilize its heat content to produce hot air, hot water, steam,
electricity, synthetic fuel or other useful energy forms.
Energy Recovery Processes: 1. Processes that recover the energy content of
combustible wastes directly by burning, or indirectly by being converted to another fuel
form such as gas or oil. 2. Conversion of waste energy, generally through the combustion
of processed or raw refuse to produce steam. See also Incineration.
Enterprise Fund: a fund for a specific purpose that is self-supporting from the
revenue it generates.
Environment: the conditions, circumstances, and influences surrounding and
affecting the development of an organism(s).
Environmental System: the interaction of an organism or group of organisms with
its natural and manmade surroundings.
Environmentally Responsible: the conscious act of choosing options which do not
have a negative impact on the environment.
EPA: United States Environmental Protection Agency
Excursion: The amount of travel experienced by a packaged product into a cushion
at peak impact.
Expanded Polyethylene (EPE): Polyethylene plastic which is expanded in a highly
controlled extrusion process to become foam. The foam is made up of tiny, closed cells or
bubbles filled with air. It is classified as a semi-rigid foam. Characteristics include
high energy absorption, resiliency, light weight, moisture and chemical resistance, and
the ability to be used over wide temperature ranges.
Expanded Polystyrene: Rigid form of foam. Can be fabricated by molding or
hot-wiring. Usually a cost effective option, it is not appropriate for multiple shipments
of extremely fragile products. Does not contain any chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).
Expanded Polyurethane: Highly flexible type of foam used extensively in
packaging and furniture applications. Characterized by excellent "memory"
properties, when manufactured it is poured into large buns and cut down when fabricated.
Extraction:- the separation of specific constituents from a matrix of solids or
a solution, employing mechanical and/or chemical methods. Also see recovery.
Extraneous Ash: after combustion, that portion of the residue (ash &
non-combustible) which is derived from entrained materials which were mixed with the
combustible material. Also see inherent ash.
Extruder: a machine producing a densified product by forcing the material under
pressure, through a die, into the desired shapes or form.
Extrusion: Process by which gases are mixed with Polyethylene plastic, the end
result being expanded Polyethylene foam. The gases being "shot" into the
Polyethylene creates cells which, in turn, produce the cushioning aspect of EPE.
Facings: (Sometimes erroneously called liners.) A form of linerboard used as the
flat members of corrugated fiberboard.
Facultative: able to live and grow with or without free oxygen.
Faraday Cage: An electrically continuous, conductive enclosure which provides
electrostatic shielding. The cage or shield is usually grounded.
Ferrous: pertaining to or derived from iron.
Ferrous Metals: metals that are derived from iron. They can be removed using
large magnets at separation facilities.
Fibre or Fibreboard Box: A container made of either corrugated or solid
fiberboard. For Classification purposes, when term 'box' is used, the structure must
comply with all requirements of UFC Rule 41 or NMFC Item 222 Series.
Fiberboard: As used in our industry, a general term applied to fabricated
paperboard utilized in container manufacture. may be either corrugated or solid
Fill: deposits made by man of natural soils and/or waste materials. See Sanitary
Filter Bag: a device designed to remove particles from a carrier gas or air by
passage of the gas through a porous (fabric) medium.
Flaps: The closing members of a fiberboard box.
Flint Glass: a lead-containing colorless glass.
Flint Glass Cullet: a particulate glass material that contains no more than 0.1
weight % FeO3 or 0.0015 weight % Cr203 as determined by chemical analysis.
Flow Control: a legal or economic means by which waste is directed to particular
destinations. For example, an ordinance requiring that certain wastes be sent to a
combustion facility is waste flow control.
Flue Dust: solid particles carried in the products of combustion.
Flue Gas: exhaust gas from a combustion process.
Flue Gas Washer or Scrubber: equipment for removing objectionable constituents
from the products of combustion by means of spray, wet baffles, etc.
Flute or Corrugation: One of the wave shapes in the inner portion of combined
corrugated fiberboard. Although other flutes, such as "Jumbo", have been
developed, the flutes most commonly used are:
Flutes per Linear foot (Approx. Height)
A-Flute (36 +/- 3 3/16 inch)
B-Flute (50 +/- 3 3/32 inch)
C-Flute (42 +/- 3 9/64 inch)
E-Flute (94 +/- 4 3/64 inch)
Flute (or Corrugation) Direction: The normal direction of the flutes is parallel
to the depth of the box. In "end-opening" boxes and in wrap-around blanks, the
flute direction may be parallel to the length and width. With the latter construction, the
designation is "horizontal corrugation box" or "horizontal corrugation
Fly Ash (flyash): small, solid particles of ash and soot generated when coal,
oil, or waste materials are burned. Fly ash is suspended in the flue gas after combustion
and is removed by the pollution control equipment.
Fly Ash Collector: equipment for removing fly ash (particulates) from the
combustion gases prior to their discharge to the atmosphere.
Foam-in-Place: A polyurethane material that is formed by dispensing chemical
components into a box or mold, such that the chemicals expand to produce a foam cushion.
Characterized by a polyethylene film skin.
Food Waste: animal and vegetable waste resulting from the handling, storage,
preparation, cooking and serving of foods; commonly called garbage.
Footprint: The total area covered by the length and width of a product.
Free-fall Drop Height: The calculated height of free fall in vacuum required for
the dropping platen to attain a measured or given impact velocity.
Front-End Recovery: mechanical processing of as-discarded solid wastes into
separate constituents. See back-end system.
Front-End System or Process: size reduction, separation and/or physical
modification of solid wastes to afford practical use or reuse.
Furan: general term applied to any of over 200 structurally related chlorinated
compounds, the most toxic of which is 2,3,7,8 - tetrachlorodibenzo - furan (TCDF), thought
to be one-tenth as toxic as (TCDD)
Furnish: A form or collection of raw material or components for use in the
manufacture of subsequent products.
G's: Symbol for the acceleration due to the effects of the earth's gravitational
pull. The measure used to quantify the shock a product experiences when dropped.
g: Symbol for the acceleration due to the effect of the earth's gravitational
pull. While somewhat variable, it is usually considered a constant of value 386 in/s2 or
Garage: spoiled or waste food that is thrown away, generally defined as wet food
waste. It is used as a general term for all products discarded.
Gases, Combustion: gases resulting from combustion which may contain water vapor
and excess or dilution air in addition to C02, and soot particles.
Gasification: the process whereby carbonaceous solid or liquid matter is
converted to gases, e.g., carbon dioxide, methane, or ammonia.
Generation, Refuse: the act or process of producing solid waste.
GCMI: Glass Container Manufactures Institute (color standard).
GCMI 39: The color Blue used in color coding for Hewlett-Packard white
GCMI 523: The color Brown used in color coding for Hewlett-Packard Kraft
Glass Container: general term applied to glass bottles and jars. Also includes
beverage containers such as food, liquor, wine, beer, soft drinks, medical, toiletries,
Glass: an inorganic product of fusion that has cooled to a rigid condition
without crystallizing. Typically hard and brittle, and having a conchoidal fracture. It
may be colorless or colored, and transparent to opaque. Masses or bodies of glass may be
made colored, translucent or opaque by the presence of dissolved, amorphous, or
crystalline materials. When a specific kind of glass is indicated, descriptive terms as
flint glass, barium glass, and window glass should be used following the basic definition,
but the qualifying term is to be used as understood by trade custom. Objects made of glass
are loosely and popularly referred to as glass; such as glass for a tumbler, a barometer,
a window, a magnifier, or a mirror.
Glass, Flat: category including sheet or window glass, plate glass, and
Glass, Pressed and Blown: glass category including a broad classification of
kitchen and tableware, art objects, novelty items and the like, lighting and electronic
glassware, and insulation glassware, insulation and manufactured products using glass
Glue: A term used as a synonym for "adhesive".
Gravity Separation: concentration or separation of a mix of materials based on
differences in specific gravity and sizes of materials.
Grinding: particle-size reduction by attrition and/or high-speed impact.
Ground: A metallic connection with the earth to establish zero potential or
voltage with respect to ground or earth. It is the voltage reference point in a circuit.
There may or may not be an actual connection to earth, but it is understood that a point
in the circuit said to be at ground potential could be connected to earth without
disturbing the operation of the circuit in any way.
Ground Water: water beneath the earth's surface that fills underground pockets
(known as aquifers) and moves between soil particles and rock, supplying wells and
Ground Water Flow: flow of water in an aquifer or soil. That portion of the
discharge of a stream which is derived from groundwater.
Ground Water, Free: groundwater in aquifers not bounded or confined by
Ground Water Runoff: that part of the groundwater which is discharged into a
stream channel as spring or seepage water.
Grounding: Connecting to ground or to a conductor that is grounded. A means of
referencing all conductive objects to a zero voltage potential surface. This is the surest
method of eliminating ESD since everything is maintained at the same potential.
ID: Internal Dimension, used for measurements when designing or manufacturing
ILD (Indent Load Deflection): The measure of flexibility of polyurethane foam in
relation to a given amount of applied pressure over a pre-determined area. It is the
measure of the cushioning property of polyurethane and is a major factor in the selection
of the amount, type, and design in the design process.
Impermeable: resistant to the flow of water or other fluid.
In-Vessel Composting: a composting method in which the compost is continuously
and mechanically mixed and aerated in a large, contained area.
Incineration: 1. A waste disposal technology of the thermal destruction type. In
incineration, combustion of wastes in the presence of excess oxygen produces water, carbon
dioxide and ash, as well as non-combustible residuals. If combustion is incomplete, other
organic by-products may occur. 2. The controlled process by which solid, liquid, or
gaseous combustible wastes are burned and changed into gases; with the residue produced
containing little or no combustible materials.
Incinerator: 1. An engineered apparatus used to burn waste substances and in
which all the factors of combustion (temperature, retention time, turbulence, and
combustion air) can be controlled. 2. A facility in which the combustion of solid waste
Incinerator Ash: the remnants of solid waste after combustion, including
non-combustibles (e.g., metals) and soot.
Incinerator Gases: combustion gases which may contain water vapor and excess or
dilution air added after the combustion chamber.
CENTRAL - a conveniently located facility that burns solid waste collected from many
CHUTE FED - charged through a chute that extends one or more floors above the furnace
COMMERCIAL - a predesigned, shop-fabricated unit possibly shipped assembled as a package,
for consuming general refuse.
INDUSTRIAL - an incinerator specifically designed to burn a particular industrial waste,
usually under 2 tons per hour (50tpd).
MUNICIPAL - privately or publicly-owned, primarily designed and used to burn household and
commercial solid wastes, usually over 2 tons per hour (+50tpd).
ON-SITE - burns waste on the property of the generator of the waste.
RESIDENTIAL - a predesigned, shop-fabricated and assembled unit, shipped as a package for
Induction Static: Induction static eliminators generally consist of a series of
conductive grounded points or brushes. When a single sharp grounded needle point is
brought into the proximity of any highly charged surface, it has induced in it a charge
opposite to that of the surface. When a high enough charge concentration has been
developed, the surrounding air will break down. A vast number of charge balancing ions are
formed. The simple "tinsel" static eliminator is an example of an induction
Industrial Plastic Scrap: material originating from a variety of in-plant
operations and which may consist of a single material or a blend of known composition.
Industrial Waste: materials discarded from industrial operations or derived from
Inert Material: materials lacking active thermal, chemical or geological
Infectious Waste: wastes such as those from a hospital or laboratory which may
contain concentrated amounts of pathogens.
Inherent Ash:- the portion of the ash of a material found after combustion which
is chemically bound to the molecules of the combustible, as distinguished from extraneous
non-combustible materials from other sources or which may be mechanically entrained with
Inner Packing: Material or parts used in supporting, positioning, or cushioning
an item in an outer shipping container.
Inorganic Waste: waste composed of matter other than plant or animal (i.e.,
contains no carbon).
Institutional Waste: waste materials originating in schools, hospitals, prisons,
research institutions and other public buildings.
Insulator: A material that does not conduct electricity, a nonconductor.
Integrated Solid Waste Management: a practice of using several alternative waste
management techniques to manage and dispose of specific components of the municipal solid
waste stream. Waste management alternatives include source reduction, recycling,
composting, energy recovery and landfilling.
Integrated Waste Management: A system of handling wastes, within a hierarchy of
disposal options in which the order of preference is often listed (i.e., in descending
priorities) such as, for MSW:
- Source reduction
- Recovery, reuse, recycle
- Secure landfill
Ionization: The process by which a neutral atom or molecule, such as air, acquires
a positive or negative charge.
IPC: Intermediate Processing Center, - usually refers to the type of materials
recovery facility (MRF) that processes residentially collected mixed recyclables into new
products available for market; often used interchangeably with MRF.
Item 222-Series: Provisions in the National Motor Freight Classification of the
motor common carriers containing requirements for corrugated and solid fiberboard boxes.
Magnetic Fraction: that portion of municipal ferrous scrap remaining after the
non-magnetic contaminants have been manually removed and the magnetic fraction washed with
water and dried at ambient temperature or as required by ASTM C29.
Magnetic Separation: a system to remove ferrous metals from other materials in a
mixed municipal waste stream. Magnets are used to attract the ferrous metals.
Magnetic Separator: a device used to remove iron and steel from a stream of
Mandatory Recycling: programs which by law require consumers to separate trash
so that some or all recyclable materials are not burned or dumped in landfills.
Manual Separation: the separation of recyclable or compostable materials from
waste by hand sorting.
Mass Burn: a municipal waste combustion technology in which solid waste is
burned in a controlled system without prior sorting or processing .
Master Carton: A carton which contains multiples of the same product.
Materials Recovery: where in the concept of resource recovery , emphasis is on
placed on separating and processing waste materials for beneficial use or reuse. The
materials usually referred to include paper, glass, metals, rubber, plastics or textiles.
mechanical collector, - A device that separates entrained dust from gas through the
application of inertial and gravitational forces.
Material Recovery Facility (MRF): a permitted solid waste facility which sorts
or separates, by hand or by use of machinery, solid wastes or materials for the purposes
of recycling, composting, or transformation.
Mechanical Separation: the separation of waste into various components using
mechanical means, such as cyclones, trommels, and screens.
Medium: (See Corrugating Material or Corrugating Medium)
Methane: An odorless, colorless, asphyxiating, flammable and explosive gas (CH4)
which can be formed by the anaerobic decomposition of organic waste matter. The major
component of natural gas, it can be used as fuel. Found in landfill and pyrolysis gases.
Microorganisms: 1. Microscopically small living organisms that digest
decomposable materials through metabolic activity. Microorganisms are active in the
composting process. 2. Generally any living things microscopic in size, including
bacteria, actinomycetes, yeasts, simple fungi, some algae, rickettsiae, spirochetes, slime
molds, protozoans, and some of the simpler multicellular organisms.
Milled Refuse: solid waste that has been mechanically reduced in size.
Mixed Kraft Bags: consists of baled used kraft bags free from twisted or woven
stock and other similar objectionable materials.
Modular Incinerator: smaller-scale waste combustion units prefabricated at a
manufacturing facility and transported to the MWC facility site.
Mold: Device employed for manufacture of completed parts in various types of
foam. Cost effective for large quantities. To date, this process most often used with
MSW Composting: Municipal Solid Waste Composting, - the controlled degradation
of municipal solid waste including after some form of preprocessing to remove
non-compostable inorganic materials.
Mulch: ground or mixed yard wastes placed around plants to prevent evaporation
of moisture and freezing of roots and to nourish the soil.
Municipal Aluminum Scrap: aluminum alloy product originating from municipal
solid waste, not source separated, that is recovered from industrial, commercial or
household wastes destined for disposal facilities.
Municipal Loose Combustible Material: (or municipal loose combustible organics -
LCO's). Materials that consist of, but are not limited to, nonmetallic materials such as
paper, rags, plastic, rubber, wood, food wastes, and yard or lawn wastes, etc., which are
not permanently attached to noncombustible objects. LCO's are defined as materials larger
than 12 mesh (US Standard Sieve). A determination of LCO's is best done by sampling,
hand-picking, hand cleaning and visually identifying the materials described previously.
Municipal Recovery (Aluminum): the percent material recovered after an assay
using the procedures prescribed in ASTM E-38 Specification.
Municipal Solid Waste (MSW): essentially household waste, and street refuse. Can
include wastes from commercial establishments and institutions; but excludes industrial
process wastes, demolition wastes, agricultural wastes, mining wastes, abandoned
automobiles, ashes, and sewage sludge. In practice, specific definitions vary across
jurisdictions. See Solid Waste.
Mutagenic: causing a change (mutation) in the DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid, the
genetic "information") of a cell's chromosomes. A mutagen may also be a
Packaging Material: All components used in the protection, security and
containerization of a finished product.
Pad: A corrugated or solid fiberboard sheet or other authorized material used
for extra protection or for separating tiers or layers of articles when packed for
Pallet: A transportation and storage device which accommodates multiple stacked
Pallet Flow: A storage device for horizontal pallet movement utilized in a
hardware pick area. Provides pallet presentation to the front of a pick zone without the
aid of a forklift.
Pallet Pool: a cooperative system for use and reuse on a lease basis for pallets
of a common or established design that is managed by a National or International pallet
Pallet Reutilization: the effective use of pallet resources to maximize their
potential life through designs, inspection, repair and reuse.
Pallet Standardization: the establishment of a limited number of specified
designs and sizes required for all use within this company.
Panel: A 'face' or 'side' of a box.
Paperboard: general term descriptive of a sheet made of fibrous material
(woodpulp, straw, paper stock or any combination thereof) on a paper machine.
Participation Rate: a measure of the number of people participating in a
recycling program compared to the total number that could be participating.
Particulate Matter (PM): tiny pieces of matter resulting from the combustion
process that can have harmful health effects on those who breath them. Pollution control
at MWC facilities is designed to limit particulate emissions.
Partitions: A set of corrugated or solid fiberboard pieces slotted so they
interlock when assembled to form a number of cells into which articles may be placed for
Pathogen: an organism capable of causing disease.
Percolate: 1. To ooze or trickle through a permeable substance. Ground water may
percolate into the bottom of an unlined landfill. 2. A qualitative term that refers to the
downward movement of water through soil, solid waste, or other porous medium.
Permeability: the capacity of a porous medium to conduct or transmit fluids.
(ALT - A property measured by the rate of passage of a fluid (or gas) under a pressure
gradient through a material.)
Permeable: having pores or openings that permit liquids or gasses to pass
Photo Master: A camera ready film negative used for printing labels.
Photodegradability: The primary attribute of a photodegradable material. Can be
inherent in the material or imparted to the material by formulation, construction, or
Photodegradable: 1. A physical or chemical structure of a material capable of
being broken down in reactions precipitated, initiated or driven by light, solely or in
combination with other causative environmental factors within a specified time, under
specific exposure conditions. 2. A process whereby the sun's ultraviolet radiation attacks
the link in the polymer chain of plastic. The breaking of this link causes the plastic
chain to fragment into smaller pieces, losing its strength and ability to flex and
stretch. As the photodegradable plastic is subjected to the effects of the natural
environment, the material is flexed, stretched and disintegrated into plastic dust.
Picklist: A document which identifies the product, customer and routing
requirements to direct orders through the warehouse.
Pigment: A solid substance which is used to give color to other materials.
Pipeline: pipeline (sometimes called inventory pipeline) is often expressed in
units of time (usually days). It defines the number of days of worth of reusable items, at
a given point in time. Pipeline describes the number of items needed to support all parts
of a reusable program (e.g., work-in-process, out & return shipping, inventory, and
Plant Waste: dunnage, shipping, packaging, storage, and general office waste.
Not production or process wastes.
Plastic Recycling: a process by which plastic materials which would otherwise
become solid waste are collected, separated, or processed and returned to the economic
mainstream in the form of useful raw materials or products.
Ply: Any of several layers of solid fiberboard.
Point: Term used to describe the thickness or caliper of paperboard, a point
being one thousandth of an inch.
Pollution: the condition caused by the presence in the environment of substances
of such character and in such quantities that the quality of the environment is impaired
or rendered offensive to life.
Polylam: Thin layers of expanded polyethylene foam laminated together to form a
Polymeric: A substance made of plastic.
Porosity: The quality or state of being permeable, i.e., of sufficiently loose
texture to permit passage of liquid or gases through pores. One measurement is the rate of
air movement through a test specimen. The relationship between porosity of corrugated
fiberboard and the action of vacuum cups on automatic equipment which opens, loads and
seals boxes is often misunderstood.
Post Consumer Recycled Materials: Materials produced from products generated by
a business or consumer which have served their intended end uses, and which have been
separated or diverted from solid waste for the purpose of collection, recycling and
Post-Consumer Recycling: the reuse of materials generated from residential and
commercial waste, excluding recycling of material from industrial processes that has not
reached the consumer, such as glass broken in the manufacturing process.
Post-Consumer Waste (PCW): any waste product that has gone through its useful
life, served the purpose for which it was intended and has been discarded by the user.
This is in contrast to pre-consumer waste or scrap from manufacturing.
Potential: Measured in millivolts, volts, or kilovolts. Potential or voltage is
measured from a base point. This point can be any voltage but is usually ground, which is
theoretically zero voltage.
Pouch: A small or moderately sized bag like container constructed by the sealing
on three edges of two flat sheets of flexible material or by sealing one end of a tube of
Pre-Consumer Recycled Materials: Those materials that cannot be reused in the
manufacturing process and would otherwise be disposed of as solid waste.
Pre-Consumer Waste: Materials discarded from industrial operations or derived
from manufacturing processes.
Pre-Consumer Recycled Materials: those materials that cannot be reused in the
manufacturing process and would otherwise be disposed of as solid waste.
Pre-Consumer Waste: materials discarded from industrial operations or derived
from manufacturing processes.
Primary Manufacturing Residues: sawdust, chips, slabs and the like created from
the basic conversion of roundwood into a lumber product. Sawmills and plywood and veneer
mills are the principal operations creating primary manufacturing residues from their
Primary Materials: - virgin or new materials used for manufacturing basic
products. Examples include wood pulp, iron ore and silica sand.
Primary Package: the first layer of packaging that comes in direct contact with
Primary Recycling: the return of a secondary material to the same industry from
which it came and processing that material so that it will yield the same or similar
product which it was originally as a secondary material. Examples are the return of broken
glass containers to glass container manufacturing plants for making new containers and the
recycling of sheet steel scrap to steel furnaces for the manufacture of new sheet steel.
Process Waste: the waste material from an industrial process. Examples of
process wastes are flue gas scrubber sludges, cement kiln dusts, sawmill dust and powder,
spent solvents, contaminated oils, etc.
Processing Wastes: any method, system, or other treatment designed to
beneficially change the physical, chemical, form or content of waste material.
Product Fragility: Product ruggedness. Measurement takes the form of a damage
boundary curve for shock and resonant frequency plot for vibration.
Product Package: See Box.
Product Stewardship: assuming responsibility for a product and it's packaging
from conception to disposal.
Products of Combustion: the gases, vapors, and solids that result from the
combustion of a material.
Pulverization: the crushing or grinding of material into very fine particle
Puncture Test: The strength of the material expressed in inch ounces per inch of
tear as measured by the Beach puncture tester. (See UFC Rule 41, Section 3, and NMFC Item
Putrescible: organic matter capable of being decomposed by microorganisms.
Pyrolysis: the chemical decomposition of an organic material by heat in an
oxygen deficient controlled environment. Results in destructive distillation and formation
of combustible (hydrocarbon) gases, oils, char, and mineral matter.
Abbreviated RFI. A form of electromagnetic interference (EMI). Any
electrical signal capable of being propagated and interfering with the proper operation of
electrical or electronic equipment. The frequency range usually includes the entire
electromagnetic spectrum. The spark from a static discharge is a source of RF
Reaction mass: A mass, consisting of the impact surface and any other rigidly
attached mass which reacts in an opposing manner to the forces produced during the impact
of the dropping platen on the impact surface.
Rebond: Composed of shredded scrap polyurethane foam bonded together with
adhesive. A relatively high density foam often used for pads or fabricated corner blocks.
Reclamation: 1. The restoration to a better or more useful state (such as land
reclamation by sanitary landfilling), or the obtaining of useful materials from solid
waste. 2. The recovery of a usable product from a waste following extensive pre-treatment.
Recoverable Resources: materials that still have useful physical or chemical
properties after serving their original purpose and can be reused or recycled for the same
or other purposes.
Recovered Materials: those materials which have known recycling potential, can
be feasibly recycled, and have been diverted or removed from the solid waste stream for
sale, use, or reuse, by separation, collection or processing.
Recovered Materials Post-Consumer (types):
I. Paper, paperboard, and fibrous wastes from retail stores, office buildings, homes, and
so forth, after they have passed through their end uses as consumer items, including: Used
corrugated boxes, old newspapers, old magazines, mixed waste paper, tabulating cards, and
II. All paper, paperboard, and fibrous wastes that enter and are collected from municipal
Recovered Materials, Pre-Consumer: those materials generated during any step in
the production of a product and that have been recovered from or otherwise diverted from
the solid waste stream, but does not include those materials generated from and commonly
reused within an original manufacturing process.
Recovery: the process of retrieving materials or energy resources from wastes.
Also referred to as extraction, reclamation, recycling, salvage.
Recyclable: waste material which is capable of being processed for subsequent
use. Materials are only recyclable if there is a widely available economically viable
collection, processing and marketing system for the material.
Recyclable materials: Packaging materials which otherwise would be processed or
disposed of as solid waste which are capable of being collected, separated, or processed
and reused or returned to use in the form of raw materials or products. Implies the
existence of an infrastructure to accomplish the above objectives.
Recyclables: materials that still have useful physical or chemical properties
after serving their original purpose and that can, therefore, be reused or remanufactured
into additional products.
Recycled: Material which has already been reclaimed from a waste product and
processed in order to regain material.
Recycled Content: the portion of a package's weight that is composed of recycled
Recycled Material: material that has been collected, dropped off or brought back
from post consumer sources that would otherwise be destined for the solid waste stream
including but not limited to post consumer material, industrial scrap material, land
overstock or obsolete inventories from distribution, wholesalers, and other companies, but
not including those materials and by-products generated from, and commonly reused within
an original manufacturing process, that are collected, dropped off or brought back and are
re-fabricated into marketable end products.
Recycled Materials Broker: negotiates contracts for the purchase of processed
material for resale to those who manufacture new products.
Recycled Plastic: 1) plastic products or parts of a product that have been
reground for sale or use to a second party. 2) plastics composed of postconsumer material
or recovered material only, which may or may not have been processed (reground,
Recycling: Any process by which solid waste, or materials which would otherwise
become solid waste, are collected, separated, or processed and reused or returned to use
in the form of raw materials or products.
Recycling Rate: the percentage by weight of a given package or packaging
distributed for sale in a state that would otherwise be destined for the solid waste
stream including but not limited to, post consumer material, industrial scrap material and
overstock or obsolete inventories from distributors, wholesalers, and other companies, but
not including those materials and by- products generated from, and commonly reused within
an original manufacturing process, that are collected, dropped off or brought back and are
refabricated into marketable products.
Refactory: a material that can withstand dramatic heat variations. Used to
construct conventional combustion chambers in incinerators. Currently, waterwall systems
are becoming more common.
Refuse: putrescible and nonputrescible solid wastes, except body wastes and
including kitchen discards, rubbish, ashes, incinerator ash, incinerator residue, street
cleanings, and market, commercial, office, and industrial wastes.
Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF): 1. fuel extracted from solid waste to be used for
combustion processes or as feedstock to other process systems. 2. product of a mixed waste
processing system in which certain recyclable and non-combustible materials are removed,
and the remaining combustible material is converted for use as a fuel to create energy.
Refused Derived Fuel (RDF) Types:
RDF-l - Wastes used as fuel in as-discarded form with only bulky wastes removed.
RDF-2 - Wastes processed to coarse particle size with or without ferrous metal separation.
RDF-3 - Combustible waste fraction processed to particle sizes - 95 percent passing 2 inch
RDF-4 - Combustible waste fraction processed into powder form - 95 percent passing 10 mesh
RDF-5 - Combustible waste fraction densified (compressed) into the form of pellets, slugs,
cubettes or briquettes.
RDF-6 - Combustible waste fraction processed into liquid fuel.
RDF-7 - Combustible waste fraction processed into gaseous fuel.
Refuse Handling: the preparation of refuse for disposal or for conversion into
Refuse, Residential: all types of solid wastes that normally originate in the
private home or apartment house. Also called domestic or household refuse.
Regrind, Plastic: plastic products or parts of a product that have been
reclaimed by shredding and granulating for use in-house.
RSC (Regular Slotted Container): A container whose flaps are the same length and
the lengthwise flaps meet at the center of the box. The space between the inner flaps
varies, depending upon the relation to length and width of the box.
Repalletization: The transfer of materials from a pallet deemed to be
unacceptable for further use because of damage, inferiority, or unusable size or design
for the distribution system to a pallet of an acceptable design and condition.
Reprocessed, Plastic: regrind or recycled-regrind material which has been
re-pelletized by extruding and chopped or formed into pellets for reuse (often called
Reprocessing: changing the character of secondary materials (i.e., minor, such
as crushing or shredding; major, such as biochemical conversion of cellulose into yeast).
Reorder Number: Same as the Part Number imprinted on label for identification.
Residential Waste: waste materials generated in single and multiple-family
Residual Wastes: those materials (solid or liquid) which still require disposal
after the completion of a resource recovery activity (e.g., slag and liquid effluents
following a pyrolysis operation), plus the discards from front-end separation.
Resins: Usually polymers which are of a high molecular weight. Resins can be
solid or semi-solid and can be either natural or synthetic in origin. In ink, a resin is
the main ingredient which binds the various other ingredients together. It also aids
adhesion to the surface.
Resistance: Electrical current encounters difficulty in passing through an
electrical circuit or conductor. This difficulty can be measured and is called resistance.
Resistivity: A measure of the intrinsic ability of a material to conduct
current. Its value is independent of the dimension of the material. Both conductors and
non conductors have resistivity. The unit of volume resistivity is the ohm-cm. The unit of
surface resistivity is ohms per square.
Resonance: That characteristic displayed by all spring/mass systems wherein at a
given frequency the response acceleration of a component is greater than the input
Resource Recovery: a term describing the extraction and utilization of materials
and energy from the waste stream. The term is sometimes used synonymously with energy
Retention Basin: an area designed to retain runoff and prevent erosion and
Return, Refillable: containers that can be returned to the economic stream
unchanged (except for minor processes such as cleaning and sanitizing) after having served
their packaging purpose to the consumer. Examples include drums, barrels and several types
of glass beverage bottles.
Returnable: the terms returnable and reusable are often used synonymously. In
this guide they will be used interchangeably and have similar meanings.
Reusable: When applied to packaging, reusable means a container, package, or
component of the container or package (e.g., a foam cushion, plastic bag, etc.) is capable
of being used more than one time, without being significantly changed (i.e., used in its
same physical form, requiring only minor repair or cleaning).
Reuse: 1. The use of a product more than once in its same form for the same
purpose; e.g., a softdrink bottle is reused when it is refined to the bottling company for
refilling. 2. The reintroduction of a package into the economic stream without any change.
Reuse Life: is the life of a reusable item. The life may be expressed in time
(e.g., months or years) or in number of reuses, before the item can no longer be reused.
Rising Current Separator: a unit housing a flowing current of water to carry off
or wash away organic materials such as food wastes, heavy plastics, and wood from a heavy
fraction. The water is pumped upwards causing many materials, which normally would sink,
to float and be removed.
Roll-Off Container: a large waste container that fits onto a tractor trailer
that can be dropped off and picked up hydraulically.
Rubbish: a general term for solid waste (excluding food waste and ashes) taken
from residences, commercial establishments, and institutions. (ALT - Nonputrescible solid
wastes, including ashes, consisting of both combustible and noncombustible materials such
as paper, corrugated fiberboard, metal cans, wood, glass, bedding, crockery or litter of
Rule 41: A rule in the "Uniform Freight Classification" of the rail
carrier containing requirements for corrugated and solid fiberboard boxes.
Salvage: a quantity of materials, sometimes of mixed composition, no longer useful
in its present condition or at its present location, but capable of being recycled,
reused, or used in other applications. Salvage also refers to materials recovered after a
calamity, such as materials obtained from a ship wrecked at sea or a building destroyed by
Salvage: the act of saving or obtaining a secondary material, be it by pickup,
sorting, disassembly, or some other activity.
Salvage and Reclamation: a refuse disposal process in which discarded materials
are separated mechanically or by hand into various categories such as ferrous and
nonferrous metals, rags, corrugated fiberboard, plastics, paper, glass, etc. for reuse or
recycling as secondary raw materials.
Sanitary Landfill: a controlled method of disposing of refuse on land without
creating nuisances or hazards to public health or safety, by utilizing the principles of
engineering to confine the refuse to the smallest practical area, to reduce it to the
smallest practical volume and to cover it with a layer of earth at the conclusion of each
day's operation or at more frequent intervals. The technique includes careful preparation
of the fill area, control of leachate and a specified volume of dirt to be spread over
each volume of trash.
Sanitation: the control of all the factors in man's physical environment that
exercise or can exercise a deleterious effect on his physical development, health, and
Scavenger: one who illegally removes materials at any point in the solid waste
Score: An impression or crease in corrugated or solid fiberboard to locate and
Scrap: 1. Any solid trim, cutting or reject material which may be suitable as
feedstock to the primary operation. Inplant or preconsumer waste. 2. Discarded or rejected
industrial waste material often suitable for recycling.
Screen: a surface provided with apertures of uniform size. A machine provided
with one or more screening surfaces to separate materials by size.
ROTARY - an inclined, meshed cylinder that rotates on its axis and sifts materials placed
in its upper end.
VIBRATING - an inclined screen that is vibrated mechanically and sifts materials placed on
Scrubber: common anti-pollution device that uses a liquid or slurry spray to
remove acid gases and particulates from municipal waste combustion facility flue gases.
Seam: The junction created by any free edge of a container flap or wall where it
abuts or rests on another portion of the container and to which it may be fastened by
tape, stitches or adhesives in the process of closing the container.
Sector: a separating device that throws mixed materials onto a rotating shaft;
heavy and resilient materials bounce off one side of the shaft, while light and inelastic
materials land on the other and are cast in the opposite direction.
Secondary Material: a material that is utilized in place of a primary, virgin or
raw material in manufacturing a product. Materials which might go to waste if not
collected and processed for reuse.
Secondary Package: the second layer which contains one or more primary packages.
Secondary Process: where components separated from solid waste may be further
processed to allow reuse in their original form or used in an entirely different form.
Secondary Recycling: the use of a secondary material in an industrial
application other than that in which the material originated. An example is the
reprocessing of newspapers and old corrugated boxes into container board for packaging or
into construction paper.
Secondary Use: the use of a material in an application other than that in which
it originated; however, the material is not changed significantly by processing and
retains its identity. Examples are cotton clothing articles that are converted into wiping
rags by being washed and cut to size; the use of steel cans in copper precipitation; and
the use of rubber tires as dock bumpers. Materials used in this mode may end up as waste
after their secondary use is completed.
Secure Landfill: a landfill designed to receive treated industrial wastes. It
differs from a conventional sanitary landfill in the degree to which the site is
engineered to diminish the migration of pollutants.
Segregation: separation or sorting into common groups.
Sensitivity: The minimum value which a sensor will effectively and reliably
Separable Components: capable of being separated.
Separation: the systematic division of solid waste into designated categories.
Sheet: A rectangle of combined board - single or multiwall - untrimmed or
trimmed, and possibly scored one way across the corrugations where such operation is done
on the corrugator.
Shelf Life: The expected period of time that foam retains its original
characteristics. Those characteristics include both cushioning properties and ESD, EMI, or
RFI protection (if any).
Shell: A sheet of corrugated or solid fiberboard scored and folded to form a
joined or unjoined tube open at both ends. Used as inner packing.
Shipper Reference Number: The reference number assigned by the shipper that
identifies a package or group of packages (order) transported by a carrier.
Shipping Container: A container which is sufficiently strong to be used in
commerce for packing, storing and transporting commodities.
Shredded Refuse: solid waste that has been physically reduced to smaller
particles by shredding.
Shredder: a size reduction machine which tears or grinds materials to a smaller
and more uniform particle size. Shredding process is also referred to as size reduction,
grinding, milling, pulverization, hogging, granulating, breaking, macerating, chipping,
crushing, cutting and rasping.
Shredding: a method of grinding or breaking down of a material to desired sized
particles or fibers.
SKU (Stock Keeping Unit): General term for a product or part number handled in
the distribution facility.
Slipsheet: A material handling device usually made of solid fiber or plastic
variable thickness on which the product or materials are loaded and usually stretch
wrapped for movement. This unit load is best handled with special handling equipment such
as squeeze trucks or push/pull devices for loading, stacking and unloading.
Slit: A cut made in fiberboard sheet with out the removal of material.
Slit Score: A cut made in a fiberboard sheet extending through only a portion of
Slot: A cut made in a fiberboard sheet, usually to form flaps and thus permit
folding. Widths of one-fourth and three-eighths inch are common.
Sludge: 1. A mixture of liquids and solids which flows under normal conditions
and can be pumped using standard pumping equipment or vacuum equipment. 2. A semi-liquid
residue remaining from the treatment of municipal and industrial water and wastewater.
Sludge Farming: a process whereby waste sludges are spread onto land and
ploughed into the soil. Nutrients are added and the deposited sludges are turned at
frequent intervals to ensure continuing bacterial decomposition of the biodegradable
Soil: sediments or other unconsolidated accumulations of solid particles
produced by the physical and chemical disintegration of rocks, and which may or may not
contain organic matter. (ALT - The unconsolidated natural surface material present above
bedrock; it is either residual in origin (formed by the in-place weathering of bedrock and
decaying organic matter), or has been transported by wind, water, or gravity.)
Soil Amendment: an additive placed in the ground to enhance its performance or
stabilize it to enhance crop growth or control.
Soil Liner: landfill liner composed of compacted soil used for the containment
Solid Fiberboard: A solid board made by laminating two or more plies of
Solid Waste: Useless, unwanted or discarded solid materials.
Solid Wastes: useless, unwanted or discarded solid materials with insufficient
liquid content to be free flowing.(l) See also; trash, garbage, rubbish. Note: For
specific forms of solid waste(s), refer to the following commonly used categories:
ASH - Residue from burning of combustible materials, may include extraneous
non-combustibles, unburned carbon, as well as mineral matter inherent in the combustible
BULKY WASTE - large discarded materials; appliances, furniture, junked automobile parts,
diseased trees, large branches, stumps, etc.
COMMERCIAL WASTE - from businesses, office buildings, apartment houses, stores, markets,
theaters, hospitals and other institutional facilities.
COMBUSTIBLE WASTE - the organic content of solid waste, including paper, plastics,
corrugated fiberboard, cartons, wood, boxes, textiles, bedding, leather, rubber, paints,
yard trimmings, leaves, and household wastes; all of which will burn.
DOMESTIC REFUSE - putrescible and nonputrescible waste originating from a residential
unit, and consisting of paper, cans, bottles, food wastes. May include yard and garden
waste, also referred to as residential or household refuse.
FOOD WASTE - animal and vegetable discards from handling, storage, sale, preparation,
cooking and serving of foods. Sometimes referred to as garbage; the putrescible
constituent of refuse.
HAZARDOUS WASTE - any waste materials or combination thereof, which pose a substantial
present or potential hazard to human health or living organisms because such wastes are
non-degradable or persistent in nature, because they can be biologically magnified,
because they can be lethal, or because they may cause or tend to cause detrimental
cumulative effects. Includes, but is not limited to, explosives, pathological wastes,
radioactive materials and chemicals which may be harmful to the public during normal
storage, collection or disposal cycle. Sometimes referred to as special or unconventional
waste. (Refer to DOT 40 CFR, Part 261).
INDUSTRIAL WASTE - discarded waste materials from industrial processes and/or
MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE (MSW) - domestic refuse and some commercial waste. Also referred to
as mixed municipal refuse (MMR).
RESIDENTIAL WASTE - discarded materials originating from residences. Also called domestic
or household refuse.
SPECIAL WASTE - requires special care and consideration in the storage, collection,
handling/transportation and disposal cycle by reason of pathological, explosive, or
toxic/hazardous properties. Sometimes referred to as unconventional waste.
TRASH - larger (non-putrescible) residential solid wastes unsuitable for routine pick-up
by refuse collector.
Solid Waste Derived Fuel: fuel that is produced from solid waste that can be
used as a primary or supplementary fuel in conjunction with or in place of fossil fuels.
It can be in the form of raw (unprocessed) solid waste, shredded (or pulped) and
classified solid waste, gas or oil derived from pyrolyzed solid waste, or gas derived from
the biodegradation of solid waste. Also referred to as refuse derived fuel (RDF).
Solid Waste Disposal: disposal of all solid wastes through landfilling,
incineration, composting, chemical treatment, and any other method which prepares solid
wastes for final disposition.
Solid Waste Management: the purposeful, systematic control of the generation,
storage, collection, transport, separation, processing, recycling, recovery and disposal
of solid wastes. See also; integrated waste management.
Solid Waste Stream: the flow of trash and scrap materials from industry, and
consumers for disposal usually through burning in incinerators or burial in sanitary
landfills or dumping at sea .
Solvent: the liquid part of a solution existing in a larger amount than the
solute (the substance being dissolved). A solvent can dissolve or disperse other
substances. In inks, a solvent is the volatile part of a ink composition that evaporates
during drying. In industrial usage, solvent usually refers to organic solvent, and as such
refers to the class of volatile hydrocarbons used as dissolvers, viscosity reducers and
Source Reduction: 1. The design and manufacture of products and packaging with
minimum toxic content, minimum volume of material, and/or a longer useful life. 2. The
elimination of packaging or reduction of the weight, volume and/or the toxicity of
Source Separated Recyclables: describes a process in which solid waste materials
are produced as an autonomous waste product which are stored separately at the site of
generation, or physically separated from all other solid wastes into recyclable,
compostable, or other fractions at the site of generation.
Source Separation: sorting at the point of generation, specific discarded
materials such as newspapers, glass, metal cans, plastics, vegetative matter, etc., into
specific containers for separate collection.
Special Wastes: solid wastes that can require special handling and management,
including, but not limited to, white goods, whole tires, used oil, mattresses, furniture,
lead-acid batteries, and biological wastes.
Stack Emissions: air emissions from a combustion facility stacks.
Standard Test Conditions: Tests on paperboard and on boxes are almost always
conducted in an atmosphere of 73°F +/- 2°F (23°C +/- 1°C) and 50% RH +/- 2% RH.
Static Charging: Caused by separation of surfaces, conductors and insulators
with one surface acquiring a relative excess of electrons of negative ions with respect to
the other surface.
Static Dissipative: a material that discharges in a controlled manner. The
resistance range is 1 x 105 to 1 x 1012 ohms/squared.
Static Loading: The amount of loading that products of different weight will
apply to a cushion. The weight of the applied mass, measured in pounds (kilograms), is
divided by the area, measured in square inches (meters) results in static load (lbs/in2 or
Stitching or Stapling: Application of metal fasteners to form the joint of fiber
boxes or to close boxes. Stitches are machine-formed using wire drawn from a spool.
Staples are pre-formed.
Street Refuse: material picked up by manual and mechanical sweeping of streets
and sidewalks, litter from public litter receptacles and dirt removed from catch basins.
Subtitle C: the hazardous waste section of the Resource Conservation and
Recovery Act (RCRA).
Subtitle D: the solid, non-hazardous waste section of the Resource Conservation
and Recovery Act (RCRA).
Subtitle F: section of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)
requiring the federal government to actively participate in procurement programs fostering
the recovery and use of recycled materials and energy.
Surface Resistivity: The amount of which determines whether an ESD product is
conductive, anti-static, or static shielding. Expressed in ohms per square.
Superfund: common name for the Comprehensive Environmental Response,
Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) to clean up abandoned or inactive hazardous waste
Suppliers: organizations who provide parts, products and components to a
Symbology: The bar code "language".
Tape: A narrow strip of cloth or paper, sometimes having a filler or reinforcement,
coated on one side with an adhesive. it is used to form the joint on a fiber box to close
or reinforce such a box. Closure and reinforcement can also be effected with
Teratogen: an agent or substance that may cause physical defects in the
developing embryo or fetus when a pregnant female is exposed to that substance.
Termship: The data entry and billing function in the process of shipping an
Tertiary Package: this includes the shipping container and all additional
internal dunnage materials if any.
Tertiary Recycling: where packaging material is recycled into a product other
than a package or a packaging material.
Test: When not otherwise modified, refers to the bursting strength of linerboard
and combined board except for those grades or corrugated fiberboard for which puncture
test is substituted for bursting strength.
Test, Bursting Strength (Mullen): The resistance of a material to bursting
expressed in pounds per square inch. The test is made on a motor driven Mullen tester.
Test, Compression: Involves the application of force applied by two flat
surfaces of a machine to opposite faces of a box, such as top and bottom, the two ends or
the two sides. Usually, the test is pre-formed on individual empty boxes, and measurement
is taken of the load applied in pounds and the deflection or deformation in one-tenths of
an inch. The test is related to the forces which filled boxes encounter while being
transported and while stacked in warehouses.
Test, Drop: This determines the resistance of a filled container to shocks
caused by dropping in certain ways (i.e., on corners, edges, faces, etc.) onto a solid
surface. It measures how well a container and its inner packing (if any) will protect the
contents against the handling encountered in shipping.
Test, Edgewise Compression (Short Column): This is a measure of the edgewise
compressive strength of a short column of corrugated fiberboard. This property, in
combination with the caliper or flexural stiffness of the combined board, relates to the
top-to-bottom compressive strength of corrugated fiberboard shipping containers. (See UFC
Rule 41, Section 3 and NMFC Item 222, Section 3.)
Test, Flat Crush: The force required to crush the corrugations in a specimen of
combined board. Force is applied to the flat surfaces of the specimen and the load per
square inch required to cause the corrugations to collapse is determined.
Test, Incline Impact (Conbur): Determines the resistance of a packaged item to
damage from impact. In the test, the container, complete with contents, is positioned on
the front end of a dolly which is released from a predetermined point on an inclined set
of tracks to strike against a solid wall at the bottom. The impact force can be measured
with a suitable shock recorder.
Test, Revolving Drum: Determines the resistance of a packaged item to shocks
encountered by rotating inside a drum which is usually 7 feet in diameter and which has 6
flat faces. Baffles mounted in a standard design on the faces the box to fall on different
sides, edges and corners as the drum is rotated.
Test, Vibration: This test subjects the container with contents to shaking or
vibration and produces, on an accelerated basis, forces similar to those encountered in
Thermal Destruction: a group of waste disposal technologies using heat to break
down hazardous organic wastes into less toxic constituents, ideally carbon dioxide and
water. The two broad categories of thermal destruction technologies are incineration and
Thermoplastic: Plastic that can be repeatedly softened by heating and hardened
by cooling through a temperature range characteristic of the plastic, and that in the
softened state can be shaped by flow into articles by molding or extrusion.
Thermoset: Plastic that, after having been cured by heat or others means, is
substantially infusible and insoluble.
Tipping Fee: 1. A fee, usually dollars per ton, for the unloading or dumping of
waste at a landfill, transfer station, recycling center, or waste-to-energy facility. 2.
The charge for processing trash or solid waste at an incinerator or sanitary landfill.
This is usually done on a weight basis but can also be on a volume or worst case basis.
Tipping Floor: unloading area for vehicles that are delivering municipal solid
waste to a transfer station or municipal waste combustion facility.
Topsoil:- the topmost layer of soil; usually refers to soil that contains humus
and is capable of supporting plant growth.
TPD: abbreviation for "Tons Per Day", usually referring to the
capacity of a paper mill, refuse processing plant, landfill, etc. See also; "Tons Per
Week" (TPW) and "Tons Per Year" (TPY).
Trace Quantities: usually, parts per million (PPM). One PPM is equivalent to one
milligram per liter.
Transfer Station: a permanent place where waste materials are taken from smaller
collection vehicles and placed in larger vehicles for transport, including truck trailers,
railroad ears, or barges. Recycling and some processing may also take place at transfer
Trash: generic term encompassing waste in general. Material considered
worthless, unnecessary or offensive that is usually thrown away. Generally defined as dry
waste material, but in common usage it is a synonym for garbage, rubbish, or refuse.
Triboelectric Charge: Pertaining to an electrical charge generated by frictional
rubbing or separation of two surfaces.
Tub Grinder: machine to grind or chip wood wastes for mulching, composting or
Waste Exchange: a computer and catalog network that redirects waste materials back
into the manufacturing or reuse process by matching companies generating specific wastes
with companies that use those wastes as manufacturing inputs.
Waste Processing: an operation such as shredding, compaction, composting or
incineration, in which the physical or chemical properties of wastes are changed.
Waste Reduction: reducing the amount or type of waste generated. Sometimes used
synonymously with Source Reduction.
Waste Stream: a term describing the total flow of solid waste from homes,
businesses, institutions and manufacturing plants that must be recycled, burned, or
disposed of in landfills; or any segment thereof, such as the "residential waste
stream" or the "recyclable waste stream."
Wastes: useless, unwanted or discarded materials resulting from natural
community activities. Wastes include solids, liquids, and gases. Solid wastes are classed
as refuse. (ALT - The term in the secondary materials industry is used to differentiate
between virgin materials and secondary materials, as in the phrase "waste
paper". The word is used in this sense as a substitute for words like; secondary,
scrap or junk. Some apply the term to materials in the process of being made acceptable
for industrial consumption. Thus, paper may be waste paper as recovered, but becomes paper
stock when it has been graded and baled for shipment to a paper mill.) Note: see also
specific types of waste such as; bulky waste, construction and demolition waste, hazardous
waste, special waste, and yard waste.
Water Borne Inks, Coatings: coatings which contain substantial amounts of water
with up to 80 percent of the volatiles being water. The polymers used to make the solids
component can be dissolved, dispersed or emulsified. In industrial water-borne coatings,
the formulations commonly contain 40 to 50 percent water, 10 percent organic solvents and
40 to 50 percent solids.
Water Table: level below the earth's surface at which the ground becomes
saturated with water. Landfills and composting facilities are designed with respect to the
water table in order to minimize potential contamination.
Waterwall Incinerator: Waste combustion facility utilizing lined steel tubes
filled with circulating water to cool the combustion chamber. Heat from the combustion
gases is transferred to the water. The resultant steam is sold or used to generate
Weight of Facings: (Minimum combined, of corrugated board.) This is the
summation of weight per thousand square feet of all facings in the board structure
excluding the weight of coatings and impregnates and excluding the weight of the
corrugating medium and the corrugating adhesive.
Wet Scrubber: anti-pollution device in which a lime slurry (dry lime mixed with
water) is injected into the flue gas stream to remove acid gases and particulates.
Wetland: area that is regularly wet or flooded and has a water table that stands
at or above the land surface for at least part of the year. Coastal wetlands extend back
from estuaries and include salt marshes, tidal basins, marshes , and mangrove swamps.
Inland freshwater wetlands consist of swamps, marshes, and bogs. Federal regulations apply
to landfills cited at or near wetlands.
White Goods: inoperative and discarded refrigerators, ranges, water heaters,
freezers, and other similar domestic and commercial large appliances.
Windrow: a large, elongated pile of composting material.