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Aeration: The process of exposing a bulk material, such as compost, to air, or of charging a liquid with a gas or a mixture of gases. Forced aeration refers to the use of blowers in compost piles.

Aerobic Digestion: the breakdown of organic components by microbial action in the presence of oxygen. See Anaerobic Digestion.

Aerobic Respiration: the oxidation of organic compounds by oxygen.

Aerobic: a biochemical process or condition occurring in the presence of oxygen.

Acceleration: A vector quantity describing the time rate of change of velocity of a body in relation to time measured in feet (meters) per second squared. It describes the rate at which velocity is increasing or decreasing (deceleration). The term acceleration and deceleration are often used interchangeably because most products respond similarly to a rapid start or a rapid stop. Both terms are expressed in G's.

Accelerometer: Piece of drop test equipment which is attached to the packaged product. It measures and transmits the acceleration, or G level, experienced by the product.

Adhesive: Material capable of adhering one surface to another. As used in connection with fiber boxes: a material to glue plies of solid fiberboard, to glue facings to corrugated medium in combined corrugated board, to glue the overlapping sides of a box forming the manufacture's joint or to the flaps in closing a slotted box.

Air Classification: a process in which a stream of air is used to separate mixed material according to the size, density, and aerodynamic drag of the pieces.

Air Pollutant: a substance that, when present in the atmosphere in large enough concentrations, adversely affects the environment.

Air Pollution: an impaired condition of the atmosphere that results because certain substances present in it are too numerous or are of a noxious character.

Air Quality Standards: levels below which a specific substance or combination of substances must be kept in the atmosphere as established by legislation.

Algal Bloom: population explosion of algae (simple one-celled or many-celled, usually aquatic, plants) in surface waters. Algal blooms are associated with nutrient-rich run-off from composting facilities or landfills.

Anaerobic: a biochemical process or condition occurring in the absence of oxygen.

Anaerobic Digestion: the breakdown of organic components by microbial components in the absence of oxygen.

Anaerobic Respiration: a type of respiration among some bacteria in which an inorganic oxidant (N03, S04) other than oxygen is used.

ANSI: American National Standards, Institute.

Anti-Static Materials: Those materials that resist triboelectric charging and produce minimal static charges when separated from themselves or other materials. This is brought about by a thin lubricious layer created by an anti-static agent which reduces frictional effects during rubbing and separation. Anti-static packaging material have a surface resistivity of between 105 -1013 ohms per square.

API: American Paper Institute

Aquifer: a water-bearing formation that provides a ground water reservoir.

Ash: inorganic residue remaining after ignition of combustible substances. Quantity determined by definite prescribed methods. Ash may not be identical, in composition or quantity, with the inorganic substances present in the material before ignition.

ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials. Committee which generates packaging test standards in the United States. The oldest and largest such committee, it has generated over 100 packaging standards since its inception in 1914.

Audit: the inspection of all or portions of a process to assure conformance to the specified requirements involved.

Auto Rotation: Movement of a cushioned product within the carton on impact. Measured in degrees, the variance is usually limited to one axis.

Axis: Orientation of a package. Packaged products have 3 axes (x, y, z), which represent the end to end, side to side, and top to bottom orientations.

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Back-End-Recovery: an engineered system that provides for collection of discrete reusable materials from mixed wastes which have been burned or treated.

Back-End-System: a combination of system components that changes the chemical properties of the waste and/or converts its components into energy or compost. See front end-system

Bag: A pre-formed container made of flexible material generally enclosed on all sides except one which forms an opening that may or may not be sealed after loading. It is normally constructed from one piece of material that has been folded over and sealed on two edges.

Baghouse: an municipal waste combustion facility air emission control device consisting of a series of fabric filters through which MWC flue gases are passed to remove particulates prior to atmospheric dispersion.

Baler: a machine used to compress recyclables into bundles to reduce volume. Balers are often used on newspaper, plastics, and corrugated cardboard.

Bar Code: A grouping of parallel rectangular bars and spaces that together represent data elements or characters in a particular symbology.

Bar Code Symbol: A graphic bar code made up of parallel bars and spaces of various widths. A bar code symbol contains a leading quiet zone, start character, data characters including check digit (if any), stop character, and a trailing quiet zone.

Basis Weight (of containerboard): Weight of linerboard or corrugated medium expressed in terms of pounds per 1,000 square feet (MSF).

Bearing Surface: The number of square inches of material required on each side of the product. Takes into account the size of the product relative to its weight. To calculate, divide the weight of the product by the static loading the product will apply to the foam strength and thickness selected.

Bending: In the term "proper bending qualities" - the containerboard must be capable of bending along creases or score lines in forming the box so that the containerboard is not ruptured to a point where it seriously weakens the box.

Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD): a measure of the amount of oxygen used by micro-organisms to break down organic waste materials in water. (1)

Biodegradability: The ability of the physical and/or chemical structure of a compound to be substantially broken-down by microorganisms within a specified period of time under defined environmental exposure conditions.

Biodegradable: 1. That which is able to be decomposed by bacterial action. 2. A physical and/or chemical structure of a material capable of being incorporated into the environmental processes through the action of microorganisms.

Biodegradable Material: waste material which is capable of being broken down by microorganisms into simple, stable compounds such as carbon dioxide and water. Most organic wastes, such as food wastes and paper, are biodegradable.

Biogasification: a resource recovery process for the extraction of methane resulting from anaerobic decomposition of organic material. (1)

Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD): the quantity of dissolved oxygen needed to satisfy the metabolic requirements of microorganisms living in water where there is a lot of organic material. Industrial effluents high in organic substances create a high BOD in the receiving water, thereby reducing oxygen levels in that water.

Board: Abbreviation for various paperboards.

Bottle Bill: a law requiring deposits on beverage containers (see Container Deposit Legislation).

Box: A rigid container having closed faces and completely enclosed the contents.

Box Maker: Box maker is meant a corrugated or solid fiber box manufacturing establishment which at least has the equipment to score, slot, print and join corrugated or solid fiber sheets into boxes, which equipment is regularly utilized in the production of fiber boxes in commercial quantities.

BMC: Box Maker Certificate. A statement printed on a corrugated fiberboard box or a solid fiberboard box guaranteeing that all applicable construction requirements of the carriers have been observed and identifying and locating the box maker. (Also, see Box Maker)

Broker: an individual or group of individuals that act as an agent or intermediary between the sellers and buyers of recyclable materials.

BTU (British Thermal Unit): used as a unit of measure for the amount of energy a given material contains (e.g., energy released as heat during combustion is measured in Btu's. Technically, one Btu is the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit.

Buckling: The non-uniform compression of a cushion. When buckling occurs, the energy of an impact is not transferred evenly throughout the cushion and more shock is transferred to package contents. Buckling usually occurs when cushions become too tall and thin.

Buffer Zone: neutral area which acts as a protective barrier separating two conflicting forces. An area which acts to minimize the impact of pollutants on the environment or public welfare. For example, a buffer zone is established between a composting facility and neighboring residents to minimize odor problems.

Built-Up: Multiple layers of corrugated pads glued together to give a desired thickness; normally used for interior packing.

Bulking Agent: a material used to add volume to another material to make it more porous to air flow. For example, municipal solid waste may act as a bulking a gent when mixed with water treatment sludge.

Bulky Waste: large items of refuse including, but not limited to, appliances, furniture, large auto parts, non-hazardous construction and demolition materials, trees, branches and stumps which cannot be handled by normal solid waste processing, collection and disposal methods.

Bundle: A shipping unit of two or more articles wrapped and fastened together by suitable means.

Burning Rate: the quantity of material per unit time -charged to a furnace, or the amount of heat released during combustion. A rate usually expressed in pounds of material per square foot of burning area per hour or in B.T.U. per square foot of burning area per hour.

Bursting Strength: The strength of material in pounds per square inch, as measured by the Cady or Mullen tester.

Buy-Back Center: a facility where individuals bring recyclables in exchange for payment.

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Caliper: The thickness of a sheet measured under specified conditions, expressed in thousandths of an inch. Thousandths of an inch are often called "points."

Capacitance: The ability of a component or material to store an electric charge. The capacitance of a charged conductor is the ratio of its charge to its voltage (i.e., C=Q/V). Capacitance is measured in terms of "farads." Since the farad is such a very large number, its values are usually expressed in millionths of a farad or "microfarads" or millionths of millionths of a farad or "picofarads."

Carcinogen: any agent - biological, chemical, radioactive - that causes cancer.

Cardboard: A term erroneously used as a synonym for paperboard or corrugated. Not a recognized term in container materials.

Carrier Reference Number: The reference number (CRN, waybill, pro number) assigned or provided by the carrier that identifies a package or group of packages transported by the carrier.

Cellular Material: Is material whose structure is made up of visible cells or pores, such as foam material.

Cellulosic: A substance made of plant parts including wood.

Centralized Yard Waste Composting: system utilizing a central facility within a politically defined area with the purpose of composting yard wastes.

Charge: Measured in coulombs or fractions thereof. The static charge on a body is measured by the number of separated electrons on the body (negative charge) or the number of separated electrons not on the body (positive charge). Since electrons cannot be destroyed, an electron removed from one body must go to another body, leaving behind a positive void. Thus, there are always equal and opposite charges produced.

Chipboard: A package generally made from reclaimed paper stock. Used for many purposes including partitions and the filler (center ply or plies) of solid fiberboard.

Class I Solid Waste Disposal Area: a disposal facility which receives an average of 20 tons or more per day, if scales are available, or 50 cubic yards or more per day of solid waste, as measured in-place, after covering, and which receives an initial cover daily.

Class II Solid Waste Disposal Area: a disposal facility which receives an average of less than 50 cubic yards per day of solid waste, as measured in-place, after covering, and which receives an initial cover at least once every 4 days.

Classification, Freight: Publications maintained by the railroads and motor common carriers which include the rules and regulations governing the acceptance of freight in transportation. These rules designate the forms of packaging which are acceptable and specify the minimum requirements for shipping containers. These must be met if a penalty increase in freight charges is to be avoided.

Clean Air Act: Act passed by Congress to have the air "safe enough to protect the public's health" by May 31, 1975. Required the setting of National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for major primary air pollutants.

Clean Water Act: Act passed by congress to protect the nation's water resources. Requires EPA to establish a system of national effluent standards for major water pollutants, requires all municipalities to use secondary sewage treatment by 1988, sets interim goals of making all US waters safe for fishing and swimming, allows point source discharges of pollutants into waterways only with a permit from EPA, requires all industries to use the best practicable technology (BPT) for control of conventional and non-conventional pollutants and to use the best available technology (BAT) that is reasonable or affordable.

Cleaned Steel Cans: tin coated or tin free, hydraulically or mechanically compressed to the size, weight and shape requirements of the customer. May include aluminum tops of beverage cans, but must be free of aluminum cans, loose tin or terne plate, dirt, garbage, non-ferrous metals (except for those used in can construction), and nonmetallics of any kind.

Co-Composting: simultaneous composting of two or more diverse waste streams.

Coal Equivalent of Fuel: the quantity of coal of stated which would be required to supply the B.T.U. equivalent to the comparative fuel(s). The B.T.U. content of fuels is generally divided by the representative heating value of coal.

Coated Paper: Paper with a surface that has been treated with clay or other materials.

Coating: A paint, varnish, lacquer or other finish used to create a protective and/or decorative layer.

Code 39: The 3 of 9 bar code is a variable length, discrete, self-checking, bi-directional, alphanumeric bar code. Its character set contains 43 meaningful characters: 0-9, a-z, -, ., $, /, %, and space. Each character is composed of nine elements: five bars and four spaces. Three of the elements are wide (binary value = 1), and six elements are narrow (binary value = 0). An additional common character (*) is used for bother start and stop delimiters.

Collection: the organized removal of accumulated containerized solid waste from the generating source.
CONTRACT COLLECTION - Collection of solid waste carried out in accordance with a written agreement in which the rights and duties of the contractual parties are set forth.
CURB COLLECTION - Collection of solid waste from containers placed adjacent to a thoroughfare.
FRANCHISE COLLECTION - Collection made by a private firm that is given exclusive right to collect for a fee paid by customers in a specific territory or from specific types of customers.
MUNICIPAL COLLECTION - Collection of solid waste by public employees and equipment under the supervision and direction of municipal authorities.
PRIVATE COLLECTION - Collection of solid waste by individuals or companies from residential, commercial, or industrial premises; the arrangements for the service are made directly between the owner or occupier of the premises and the collector.

Collector Particulate (types) Bag-Filter: a filter in which the medium is a fabric cylindrical bag.
CYCLONE - an inlet gas stream is made to move vertically; centrifugal forces tend to drive suspended particles to the wall of the cyclone.
DUST - any device used to remove particulate from a gas stream.
FLY ASH - removes fly ash from combustion gases.
MECHANICAL - inertial and gravitational forces separate dry dust from gas.
MULTICYCLONE - an assembly of cyclone tubes operating in parallel.

Collector: handles the collection of post-consumer recyclables in any of several ways -- curbside collection, operation of community drop-off sites, or management of community, municipal or regional recycling centers.

Combined Board: The term used to indicate a completely fabricated sheet assembled from several components, such as 'corrugated' fiberboard or 'solid' fiberboard.

Combustible Waste: discarded material capable of combustion includes paper, corrugated fiberboard, cartons, wood, boxes, excelsior, plastic, rags, bedding, leather, trimmings, household waste.

Combustion: the rapid chemical reaction of oxygen with a substance which results in the evolution of heat and usually light.

Combustion Gases: the mixture of gases and vapors produced by combustion.

Commercial Waste: waste materials originating in wholesale, retail, institutional, or service establishments such as office buildings, stores, markets, theaters, hotels and warehouses.

Commingled Plastic: a mixture of plastics, the components of which may have widely differing properties.

Commingled Recyclables: A mixture of several recyclable materials into one containers.

Compact: to reduce size or dimensions or increase density without adding or subtracting matter.

Compaction Ratio: the volume a package occupies after undergoing a standardized test which is representative of conditions in municipal landfills divided by its original volume as manufactured.

Compactor: power-driven device used to compress materials to a smaller volume.

Components: A small part or product.

Composites: Materials that are made up of one or more different materials such as screened, woven, deposited or evaporated films, or painted materials of different conductivity.

Compost: the relatively stable decomposed organic material resulting from the composting process. Also referred to as humus.

Compostable: capable of undergoing physical, chemical, thermal, and biological decomposition in a compost facility such that the finished compost ultimately mineralizes into carbon dioxide, water, and biomass, leaving no distinguishable, persistent, synthetic, or toxic residues.

Composting: 1. The process of decomposing organic matter by microorganisms. 2. The controlled biological decomposition of organic solid waste under aerobic conditions.

Composting Types: MECHANICAL - the material is continuously mechanically mixed and aerated.
VENTILATED CELL - the material is mixed and aerated by being dropped through a vertical series of ventilated cells.
WINDROW - the material is placed in open-air windrows, piles, or ventilated bins or pits and is occasionally turned or mixed. The process may be anaerobic or aerobic.

Compressive Creep: The loss of thickness of material under a constant load over a period of time. As a general rule, creep of 10% is recognized as a practical limit.

Computer Printout Paper: consists of white sulphite or sulfate papers in forms manufacture for use in data processing machines. This grade may contain colored stripes and/or computer printing, and may contain not more than 5% of groundwood in the packing. All stock must be untreated and uncoated.

CONEG: Coalition of Northeastern Governors, representing: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont.

Conductive Materials: Those materials that are either metal, carbon particles or other conductive materials, or whose surface has been treated with such through a process of lacquering, plating, metallizing, or printing. These materials seldom charge when separated from one another but can produce charging when separated from non-conductive surfaces. Surface resistivity measures 105 ohms per square or less.

Conformance Methods: approaches used to obtain the stipulated or specified requirements.

Construction and Demolition Wastes: waste building materials and rubble resulting from construction, remodeling, repair and demolition operations on houses, commercial buildings, pavements and other structures.

Consumer Waste: Materials which have been used and discarded by the buyer, or customer, as opposed to wastes or scrap created in the manufacturing process.

Container: A box or receptacle which is usually the outer protection used in packaging goods for shipment.

Container Board: The paperboard components (linerboard, corrugating material, filler chip) from which corrugated and solid fiberboard are manufactured.

Container Deposit Legislation: laws that require monetary deposits to be levied on beverage containers. The money is returned to the consumer when the containers are returned to the retailer. Also called "Bottle Bills."

Contaminant: That which contaminates or makes impure by contact or mixture and effects a material's properties. Non-homogeneous materials which corrupts the recycling or reprocessing of another material (i.e., paper and adhesives are contaminants of plastic foam recycling process).

Conveyable: A product which meets the criteria to be transported on a conveyor system.

Conveyor Sortation System: An automated method to divert product to the appropriate shipping lane.

Corrugated Board: Single Faced: The structure formed by one corrugated member glued to one flat facing.

Corrugated Board: Single wall: Also known as "Double Faced". The structure formed by one corrugated inner member glued between two flat facings.

Corrugated Board: Double Wall: The structure formed by three flat facings and two intermediate corrugated members.

Corrugated Board: Triple Wall: The structure formed by four flat facings and three intermediate corrugated members.

Corrugated Material or Corrugating Medium: Paperboard used in forming the fluted portion of the corrugated board.

Corrugator: A machine which usually takes containerboard from three rolls and combines it into a corrugated board consisting of two exterior facings and an intermediate fluted member. The corrugator forms the intermediate material into a series of arched trusses and attaches the facings to them with adhesive applied at the tips of the flutes. The resulting board is called single wall corrugated fiberboard. By taking containerboard from five rolls, it also produces a corrugated board, commonly known as double wall, consisting of three facings and two corrugated mediums. By adding another corrugated medium and facings, triple wall corrugated fiberboard is produced. The machine also cuts the fiberboard to size and may score it in one direction.

Cradle to Grave: an expression to indicate consideration from the point of initial conception of a packaging material or design through its entire useful life and eventual disposal. This disposal may be after many successful reuses and then hopefully by being put into an effective recycling channel.

Crown Flint Glass: an optical crown glass bordering on optical flint glass because of the addition of a substantial content of lead oxide and with a somewhat higher dispersion than optical crown glass.

Cullet: 1. Clean, generally color-sorted, crushed glass used to make new glass products. 2. Waste or broken glass, usually suitable as an addition to raw batch material.

Cullet (Types):
FOREIGN CULLET - cullet from an outside source.
DOMESTIC or FACTORY CULLET - cullet from within the plant.

Curbside Collection: programs where recyclable materials are collected at the curb, often from special containers, to be brought to various processing facilities.

Current: The flow of electrons past a certain point in a specified period of time, measured in amperes or fractions thereof. Current is measured in terms of electrons per second, but since this number would be tremendously large, it is usually stated in terms of "coulombs per second." 1 coulomb per second = 1 ampere.

Cushion Curve: Shows how a packaging material of a certain strength and thickness behaves at different impact levels. Curves are generated by dropping a series of known weights onto a foam sample from a specific height and measuring the amount of the foam allows to be transferred. Each point in the curve represents how much loading a product of known weight will apply to a cushion, and how much shock the cushion will allow to be transferred to the product.

Cushioning Material: A material used to isolate or reduce the effect of externally applied shock or vibration forces, or both.

Cuttings: consists of baled new cuttings of paperboard such as are used in the manufacture of folding paper cartons, set-up boxes and similar boxboard products.

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Data Identifier: A specified character string which defines the specific intended use of the data that immediately follows. The DI is not considered part of the data it proceeds. The DI shall be an alphanumeric character as defined by ANS FACT-1, Data Identifier Standard.

Decay Rate: The period of time it takes an electrical charge to be dissipated by an ESD protective field. Measured in seconds or fractions thereof.

Decomposition: 1. The reduction of the net energy level and change in chemical composition of organic matter, as by microorganisms. 2. Breaking down into component parts or basic elements.

Deflection, Corrugated: As used in compression testing, refers to the deformation or reduction in dimensions in the testing direction between established pre-load and ultimate failure load.

Deflection, Foam: The amount of impact that is filtered as the shock travels from the outer perimeter of the package to the unit itself.

Deglasser: a separator used to remove small particles of glass, metal and other products from compost. In addition, it utilizes a pulsed, rising column of air to separate heavy items contained in compost.

Degradable: Capable of undergoing a change in chemical structure under specific environmental conditions that result in loss of properties that may vary as measured by standard test methods appropriate to a material and its application in a period of time that determines its classification.

Deink: to remove ink, filler and other extraneous materials from reusable paper by mechanical, hydraulic and chemical treatment.

Dense Media Separation: a separation process of non- ferrous metals from other large particles such as rubber, plastic, bone or leather, using a fluid solution with a specific gravity about twice that of water. The metal fraction sinks in the solution while other materials float.

Densified Refuse-Derived Fuel(d-RDF): a refuse-derived fuel that has been processed to produce briquettes, pellets, or cubes.

Density: The ratio of foam cells per square inch. It is the amount of cells in any given volume of foam. Density is the basic measure by which foam is considered. Cushioning curves are developed in relation to density.

Detinning: recovering tin from "tin" cans by a chemical process which makes the remaining steel more easily recycled.

Die-Cut, Corrugated: A cut made with special steel rule dies. The act of making a part or container which is cut and scored to shape by such tools. Also used to denote a board which has been die-cut.

Die-Cut, Foam: Process by which polyethylene and polyurethane foams are cut to desired shapes and sizes. A machine operation, it necessitates the use of a tool, or die.

Dielectric Breakdown: A threshold effect in a dielectric medium where, at some electric field strength across the medium, bound electrons become unbound and travel through the medium as a current. In solid medium, the current is permanently damaged. The units of measurements are usually volts per unit of thickness.

Dimensions: -Depth: The distance between the innermost surfaces of the box measured perpendicular to the length and width.

Dimensions: -Length: The larger of the two inner dimensions of the open face.

Dimensions: -Width: The lesser of the two inner dimensions of the open face.

Dioxin: 1. General term applied to any of 75 structurally related chlorinated compounds, the most toxic of which is 2,3,7,8 - tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). 2. Heterocyclic hydrocarbons that occur as toxic impurities, especially in herbicides.

Displacement: The magnitude of movement of a body, point, or surface from a fixed reference point, measured in inches (meters).

Disposable: A disposable package is one that will be discarded after one use.

Disposal: the discharge, deposit, injection, dumping, spilling, leaking, or placing of any solid waste or hazardous waste into or upon any land or water so that such solid waste or hazardous waste or any constituent thereof may enter other lands or be emitted into the air or discharged into any waters including ground waters, or otherwise enter the environment.

Disposal (Types):
OCEAN - deposition of waste into an ocean or estuarine body of water.
ON-SITE - utilization of methods or processes to eliminate or reduce volume of solid waste on the property of the generator.
WASTE - an orderly process of discarding useless or unwanted material.

Diversion Rate: a measure of the amount of waste material being diverted for recycling compared with the total amount that was previously thrown away.

Domestic Refuse: solid wastes which normally originate in residential household or multifamily units. See Solid Waste.

Drop Height: Represents a given probability of impact. Selection of height is dependent on the size and weight of a packaged product.

Drop-Off Center: a method of collecting recyclable or compostable materials in which the materials are taken by individuals to collection sites and deposited in to designated containers.

Drop Test: Process of determining the level of impact a packaged product experiences when dropped from a pre-determined height. The drop height is dependent on the weight of the unit.

Dump: an unmonitored land area where unrestricted unloading of refuse is done without requiring cover material to be spread. (As opposed to Landfill).

Dumping: an indiscriminate method of disposing of solid waste.

Dumping Fee: the charge for processing trash or solid waste at an incinerator or sanitary landfill. This is usually done on a weight basis but can also be on a volume or worst case basis.

Dumpster: a large metal movable container for the collection and transportation of trash for disposal usually to incinerators or sanitary landfills.

Duration: Time element of the impact pulse of a drop test. If an impact has a radical spike, and little resonance the duration is short. However, if the pulse is more curved, the duration is longer. Measured in milliseconds.

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Ecology: the science that deals with the interrelationships of organisms and their living and nonliving surroundings.

Ecosystem: the interdependence of organisms and their surroundings.

Eddy Current Separator: a device which passes a varying magnetic field through feed material, thereby inducing eddy currents in the nonferrous metals present in the feed. The eddy currents counteract the magnetic field and exert a repelling force on the metals, separating them from the field and the remainder of the feed.

Edge Crush Test (ECT): (Also known as Edgewise Compression Test or Short Column Crush Test) - The measure of the edgewise compressive strength of a short column of corrugated fiberboard. This property, in combination with the caliper of the combined board and the perimeter of the container, relates to the top-to-bottom compressive strength of corrugated fiberboard boxes.

Effluent: 1. Any solid, liquid or gas which enters the environment as a by-product of a man-oriented process. The substances that flow out of a designated source. 2. The liquid waste of sewage and industrial processing. Also known as discharge liquor.

Effluent Seepage: diffuse discharge onto the ground of liquids that have percolated through a mass; may contain dissolved or suspended materials.

Electrodynamic Separator: utilizes a rotating drum or other moving pole in place of one or more fixed charged plates (poles). Can be used to separate electrical conductive material (e.g., non-ferrous metal) from nonconductive material (e.g., organics).

Electronic-Optical Sorter: separates glass from stones and pieces of ceramics; sorts the glass according to color. Photoelectric detector determines the color or opacity of the material and blasts of air deflect the pieces into the proper containers.

Electromagnetic Shield: Is a screen or other housing placed around devices or circuits to reduce the effect of both electric and magnetic fields on or by them. The electromagnetic field results from the presence of a rapidly moving electric field (RF) and its associated magnetic field. Shielding from electromagnetic interference (abbreviated EMI) is a combination of reflection and absorption of electromagnetic energy by the material. Reflection occurs at the surface much like the reflection of light at an air-to-water interface, and is not usually affected by shield thickness. Absorption, however, occurs within the shield and is highly dependent on thickness. The best shielding materials are ferric, i.e., steel, nickel, etc. Aluminum is often used in less critical situations, however.

Electron: A negatively charged particle with an electrical charge equal to 1.6 x 10-19.

Electrostatic Field: The region surrounding an electrically charged object in which another electrical charge can be induced and will experience a force. Quantitatively, it is the voltage gradient between two points at different potentials.

Electrostatic Precipitator: device for removing particulate matter from MWC facility air emissions. It works by causing the particles to become electrostatically charged and then attracting them to an oppositely charged plate, where they are precipitated out of the air.

Electrostatic Shield: A material that acts as a barrier or enclosure that prevents the penetration of an electrostatic field. An electrostatic shield, however, may not offer much protection against the effects of electromagnetic interference (EMI). EMI shields, however, are good electrostatic shields.

Electrostatic Shielding Material: Those materials which are capable of attenuating an electrostatic field, so that its effects do not reach the stored or contained items and produce damage.

Electrostatic Separator: a device utilizing the principle that electrical conductors lose an induced static charge faster than insulators. In this way, an electrostatic sorter can separate conducting materials (e.g., aluminum) from non-conducting ones (e.g., glass) after the particles are charged in a high voltage direct current electrical field.

Elutriation: a process wherein materials are separated according to differences in their densities and/or shapes in a counter-current stream of a fluid, usually water, gas or air.

EMI: Abbreviation for electromagnetic interference. Sources are static, sparks, lightning, radar, radio and TV transmission, brush motors, line transients, etc. By line conduction or air propagation, EMI can induce undesirable voltage signals in electronic equipment causing malfunction and occasionally component damage. Protection against EMI usually requires the use of shields, filters, and special circuit design.

Emission: 1. Discharge of a gas into atmospheric circulation. 2. Material released into the air either by a discrete source (primary emission) or as a result of a photochemical reaction or chain of reactions (secondary emission). The total of substances exhausted into the atmosphere.

Emission Standard: a rule or measurement established to regulate or control the amount of a given constituent that may be discharged into the outdoor atmosphere.

Emulsion: a liquid that is a mixture of liquids that do not dissolve in each other. In an emulsion, one of the liquids contains minute droplets of the other, which are evenly distributed throughout.

End Product: any finished item which is not modified prior to serving its intended end use.

End Product Manufacturing: produces from recycled material either a finished product or a component for a finished product.

Energy Recovery: Energy resource recovery where a part, or all, of the waste stream is processed to utilize its heat content to produce hot air, hot water, steam, electricity, synthetic fuel or other useful energy forms.

Energy Recovery Processes: 1. Processes that recover the energy content of combustible wastes directly by burning, or indirectly by being converted to another fuel form such as gas or oil. 2. Conversion of waste energy, generally through the combustion of processed or raw refuse to produce steam. See also Incineration.

Enterprise Fund: a fund for a specific purpose that is self-supporting from the revenue it generates.

Environment: the conditions, circumstances, and influences surrounding and affecting the development of an organism(s).

Environmental System: the interaction of an organism or group of organisms with its natural and manmade surroundings.

Environmentally Responsible: the conscious act of choosing options which do not have a negative impact on the environment.

EPA: United States Environmental Protection Agency

Excursion: The amount of travel experienced by a packaged product into a cushion at peak impact.

Expanded Polyethylene (EPE): Polyethylene plastic which is expanded in a highly controlled extrusion process to become foam. The foam is made up of tiny, closed cells or bubbles filled with air. It is classified as a semi-rigid foam. Characteristics include high energy absorption, resiliency, light weight, moisture and chemical resistance, and the ability to be used over wide temperature ranges.

Expanded Polystyrene: Rigid form of foam. Can be fabricated by molding or hot-wiring. Usually a cost effective option, it is not appropriate for multiple shipments of extremely fragile products. Does not contain any chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).

Expanded Polyurethane: Highly flexible type of foam used extensively in packaging and furniture applications. Characterized by excellent "memory" properties, when manufactured it is poured into large buns and cut down when fabricated.

Extraction:- the separation of specific constituents from a matrix of solids or a solution, employing mechanical and/or chemical methods. Also see recovery.

Extraneous Ash: after combustion, that portion of the residue (ash & non-combustible) which is derived from entrained materials which were mixed with the combustible material. Also see inherent ash.

Extruder: a machine producing a densified product by forcing the material under pressure, through a die, into the desired shapes or form.

Extrusion: Process by which gases are mixed with Polyethylene plastic, the end result being expanded Polyethylene foam. The gases being "shot" into the Polyethylene creates cells which, in turn, produce the cushioning aspect of EPE.

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Facings: (Sometimes erroneously called liners.) A form of linerboard used as the flat members of corrugated fiberboard.

Facultative: able to live and grow with or without free oxygen.

Faraday Cage: An electrically continuous, conductive enclosure which provides electrostatic shielding. The cage or shield is usually grounded.

Ferrous: pertaining to or derived from iron.

Ferrous Metals: metals that are derived from iron. They can be removed using large magnets at separation facilities.

Fibre or Fibreboard Box: A container made of either corrugated or solid fiberboard. For Classification purposes, when term 'box' is used, the structure must comply with all requirements of UFC Rule 41 or NMFC Item 222 Series.

Fiberboard: As used in our industry, a general term applied to fabricated paperboard utilized in container manufacture. may be either corrugated or solid construction.

Fill: deposits made by man of natural soils and/or waste materials. See Sanitary Landfill.

Filter Bag: a device designed to remove particles from a carrier gas or air by passage of the gas through a porous (fabric) medium.

Flaps: The closing members of a fiberboard box.

Flint Glass: a lead-containing colorless glass.

Flint Glass Cullet: a particulate glass material that contains no more than 0.1 weight % FeO3 or 0.0015 weight % Cr203 as determined by chemical analysis.

Flow Control: a legal or economic means by which waste is directed to particular destinations. For example, an ordinance requiring that certain wastes be sent to a combustion facility is waste flow control.

Flue Dust: solid particles carried in the products of combustion.

Flue Gas: exhaust gas from a combustion process.

Flue Gas Washer or Scrubber: equipment for removing objectionable constituents from the products of combustion by means of spray, wet baffles, etc.

Flute or Corrugation: One of the wave shapes in the inner portion of combined corrugated fiberboard. Although other flutes, such as "Jumbo", have been developed, the flutes most commonly used are:
Flutes per Linear foot (Approx. Height)
A-Flute (36 +/- 3 3/16 inch)
B-Flute (50 +/- 3 3/32 inch)
C-Flute (42 +/- 3 9/64 inch)
E-Flute (94 +/- 4 3/64 inch)

Flute (or Corrugation) Direction: The normal direction of the flutes is parallel to the depth of the box. In "end-opening" boxes and in wrap-around blanks, the flute direction may be parallel to the length and width. With the latter construction, the designation is "horizontal corrugation box" or "horizontal corrugation blank".

Fly Ash (flyash): small, solid particles of ash and soot generated when coal, oil, or waste materials are burned. Fly ash is suspended in the flue gas after combustion and is removed by the pollution control equipment.

Fly Ash Collector: equipment for removing fly ash (particulates) from the combustion gases prior to their discharge to the atmosphere.

Foam-in-Place: A polyurethane material that is formed by dispensing chemical components into a box or mold, such that the chemicals expand to produce a foam cushion. Characterized by a polyethylene film skin.

Food Waste: animal and vegetable waste resulting from the handling, storage, preparation, cooking and serving of foods; commonly called garbage.

Footprint: The total area covered by the length and width of a product.

Free-fall Drop Height: The calculated height of free fall in vacuum required for the dropping platen to attain a measured or given impact velocity.

Front-End Recovery: mechanical processing of as-discarded solid wastes into separate constituents. See back-end system.

Front-End System or Process: size reduction, separation and/or physical modification of solid wastes to afford practical use or reuse.

Furan: general term applied to any of over 200 structurally related chlorinated compounds, the most toxic of which is 2,3,7,8 - tetrachlorodibenzo - furan (TCDF), thought to be one-tenth as toxic as (TCDD)

Furnish: A form or collection of raw material or components for use in the manufacture of subsequent products.

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G's: Symbol for the acceleration due to the effects of the earth's gravitational pull. The measure used to quantify the shock a product experiences when dropped.

g: Symbol for the acceleration due to the effect of the earth's gravitational pull. While somewhat variable, it is usually considered a constant of value 386 in/s2 or (9.8 m/s2).

Garage: spoiled or waste food that is thrown away, generally defined as wet food waste. It is used as a general term for all products discarded.

Gases, Combustion: gases resulting from combustion which may contain water vapor and excess or dilution air in addition to C02, and soot particles.

Gasification: the process whereby carbonaceous solid or liquid matter is converted to gases, e.g., carbon dioxide, methane, or ammonia.

Generation, Refuse: the act or process of producing solid waste.

GCMI: Glass Container Manufactures Institute (color standard).

GCMI 39: The color Blue used in color coding for Hewlett-Packard white corrugated.

GCMI 523: The color Brown used in color coding for Hewlett-Packard Kraft corrugated.

Glass Container: general term applied to glass bottles and jars. Also includes beverage containers such as food, liquor, wine, beer, soft drinks, medical, toiletries, and chemicals.

Glass: an inorganic product of fusion that has cooled to a rigid condition without crystallizing. Typically hard and brittle, and having a conchoidal fracture. It may be colorless or colored, and transparent to opaque. Masses or bodies of glass may be made colored, translucent or opaque by the presence of dissolved, amorphous, or crystalline materials. When a specific kind of glass is indicated, descriptive terms as flint glass, barium glass, and window glass should be used following the basic definition, but the qualifying term is to be used as understood by trade custom. Objects made of glass are loosely and popularly referred to as glass; such as glass for a tumbler, a barometer, a window, a magnifier, or a mirror.

Glass, Flat: category including sheet or window glass, plate glass, and laminated glass.

Glass, Pressed and Blown: glass category including a broad classification of kitchen and tableware, art objects, novelty items and the like, lighting and electronic glassware, and insulation glassware, insulation and manufactured products using glass fibre.

Glue: A term used as a synonym for "adhesive".

Gravity Separation: concentration or separation of a mix of materials based on differences in specific gravity and sizes of materials.

Grinding: particle-size reduction by attrition and/or high-speed impact.

Ground: A metallic connection with the earth to establish zero potential or voltage with respect to ground or earth. It is the voltage reference point in a circuit. There may or may not be an actual connection to earth, but it is understood that a point in the circuit said to be at ground potential could be connected to earth without disturbing the operation of the circuit in any way.

Ground Water: water beneath the earth's surface that fills underground pockets (known as aquifers) and moves between soil particles and rock, supplying wells and springs.

Ground Water Flow: flow of water in an aquifer or soil. That portion of the discharge of a stream which is derived from groundwater.

Ground Water, Free: groundwater in aquifers not bounded or confined by impervious strata.

Ground Water Runoff: that part of the groundwater which is discharged into a stream channel as spring or seepage water.

Grounding: Connecting to ground or to a conductor that is grounded. A means of referencing all conductive objects to a zero voltage potential surface. This is the surest method of eliminating ESD since everything is maintained at the same potential.

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Hammermill: 1. A broad category of high-speed rotating equipment that uses pivoted or fixed hammers or cutters on a horizontal or vertical shaft to crush, grind, chip or shred materials. 2. A type of crusher or shredder used to break up waste materials into smaller pieces.

Haul Distance: the distance a collection vehicle travels from its last pickup stop to the solid waste transfer station, processing facility, or sanitary landfill. The distance a vehicle travels from a solid waste transfer station or processing facility to a point of final disposal. The distance that cover materials must be transported from an excavation or stockpile to the working face of a sanitary landfill.

Hazardous Waste: 1. Waste material that may pose a threat to human health or the environment, the disposal and handling of which is regulated by federal law. 2. Waste that requires special precaution in its storage, collection, transportation, treatment or disposal to prevent damage to persons or property. there are no universally accepted definitions for the term hazardous waste, and each country defines the term with its own criteria. In a general sense, however, hazardous wastes include explosive, flammable, volatile, radioactive, toxic and pathological wastes.

Heat Seal: Process by which polyethylene foam pieces are adhered to each other. Area to be attached on both pieces is heated by a grill or blower, changing the cellular structure. When foam cools the area bonded is as strong as the unaltered foam area.

Heavy Metals: hazardous elements including cadmium, chromium, mercury, and lead which may be found in the waste stream as part of discarded items such as batteries, lighting fixtures, colorants and inks.

Heavy-Media Separation: separation of solids into heavy and light fractions in a fluid medium whose density lies between the fractions.

Heavy-Media Separator: a unit process used to separate materials of differing density by "float/sink" in a colloidal suspension of a finely ground dense mineral. This suspension, or media, usually consists of a water suspension of magnetite, galena or ferrosilicon.

High Grade Paper: relatively valuable types of paper such as computer printout , white ledger, and tab cards. Also used to refer to industrial trimmings at paper mills that are recycled.

Hot Wire: Process by which cavities are cut into expanded polystyrene with a heated wire. The wires heated by electrical current are formed to shape desired shape and inserted into the foam. Very labor intensive but often preferable to molding on small quantities due to the high cost of molds.

Humus: organic materials resulting from decay of plant or animal matter. Also referred to as compost.

Hydrogeology: the study of surface and subsurface water.

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ID: Internal Dimension, used for measurements when designing or manufacturing containers.

ILD (Indent Load Deflection): The measure of flexibility of polyurethane foam in relation to a given amount of applied pressure over a pre-determined area. It is the measure of the cushioning property of polyurethane and is a major factor in the selection of the amount, type, and design in the design process.

Impermeable: resistant to the flow of water or other fluid.

In-Vessel Composting: a composting method in which the compost is continuously and mechanically mixed and aerated in a large, contained area.

Incineration: 1. A waste disposal technology of the thermal destruction type. In incineration, combustion of wastes in the presence of excess oxygen produces water, carbon dioxide and ash, as well as non-combustible residuals. If combustion is incomplete, other organic by-products may occur. 2. The controlled process by which solid, liquid, or gaseous combustible wastes are burned and changed into gases; with the residue produced containing little or no combustible materials.

Incinerator: 1. An engineered apparatus used to burn waste substances and in which all the factors of combustion (temperature, retention time, turbulence, and combustion air) can be controlled. 2. A facility in which the combustion of solid waste takes place.

Incinerator Ash: the remnants of solid waste after combustion, including non-combustibles (e.g., metals) and soot.

Incinerator Gases: combustion gases which may contain water vapor and excess or dilution air added after the combustion chamber.

Incinerator Types:
CENTRAL - a conveniently located facility that burns solid waste collected from many different sources.
CHUTE FED - charged through a chute that extends one or more floors above the furnace grate.
COMMERCIAL - a predesigned, shop-fabricated unit possibly shipped assembled as a package, for consuming general refuse.
INDUSTRIAL - an incinerator specifically designed to burn a particular industrial waste, usually under 2 tons per hour (50tpd).
MUNICIPAL - privately or publicly-owned, primarily designed and used to burn household and commercial solid wastes, usually over 2 tons per hour (+50tpd).
ON-SITE - burns waste on the property of the generator of the waste.
RESIDENTIAL - a predesigned, shop-fabricated and assembled unit, shipped as a package for individual dwellings.

Induction Static: Induction static eliminators generally consist of a series of conductive grounded points or brushes. When a single sharp grounded needle point is brought into the proximity of any highly charged surface, it has induced in it a charge opposite to that of the surface. When a high enough charge concentration has been developed, the surrounding air will break down. A vast number of charge balancing ions are formed. The simple "tinsel" static eliminator is an example of an induction static eliminator.

Industrial Plastic Scrap: material originating from a variety of in-plant operations and which may consist of a single material or a blend of known composition.

Industrial Waste: materials discarded from industrial operations or derived from manufacturing processes.

Inert Material: materials lacking active thermal, chemical or geological properties.

Infectious Waste: wastes such as those from a hospital or laboratory which may contain concentrated amounts of pathogens.

Inherent Ash:- the portion of the ash of a material found after combustion which is chemically bound to the molecules of the combustible, as distinguished from extraneous non-combustible materials from other sources or which may be mechanically entrained with the combustible.

Inner Packing: Material or parts used in supporting, positioning, or cushioning an item in an outer shipping container.

Inorganic Waste: waste composed of matter other than plant or animal (i.e., contains no carbon).

Institutional Waste: waste materials originating in schools, hospitals, prisons, research institutions and other public buildings.

Insulator: A material that does not conduct electricity, a nonconductor.

Integrated Solid Waste Management: a practice of using several alternative waste management techniques to manage and dispose of specific components of the municipal solid waste stream. Waste management alternatives include source reduction, recycling, composting, energy recovery and landfilling.

Integrated Waste Management: A system of handling wastes, within a hierarchy of disposal options in which the order of preference is often listed (i.e., in descending priorities) such as, for MSW:

  1. Source reduction
  2. Recovery, reuse, recycle
  3. Incineration
  4. Secure landfill

Ionization: The process by which a neutral atom or molecule, such as air, acquires a positive or negative charge.

IPC: Intermediate Processing Center, - usually refers to the type of materials recovery facility (MRF) that processes residentially collected mixed recyclables into new products available for market; often used interchangeably with MRF.

Item 222-Series: Provisions in the National Motor Freight Classification of the motor common carriers containing requirements for corrugated and solid fiberboard boxes.

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Joint: The joint is that part of the box where the ends of the scored and slotted blank are joined together by taping, stitching, or gluing. When accomplished in the box manufacturer's plant, it is known as a manufacturer's joint; when effected at the time that the box flaps are sealed in a box user's plant (usually on automatic equipment), it is called a user's joint.

Junk: old or scrap copper, brass, rope, rags, batteries, paper, rubber, junked, dismantled or wrecked automobiles or parts thereof; iron, steel and other old or scrap ferrous materials which are not held for sale or remelting purposes. Unprocessed materials suitable for reuse or recycling, commonly referred to as secondary materials.

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Kanban: used to communicate a demand to produce a manufactured item and to literally pull materials to an operation in the process without scheduling.

Knocked-Down (KD): A term denoting that an article is partially or entirely taken apart - not setup. (See UFC Rule 19 and NMFC Item 110, Section 12(c).)

Kraft: A word meaning strength applied to pulp, paper or paperboard produce from wood fibers by the sulfate process.

Kraft, Cylinder: Containerboard made from kraft pulp on a cylinder machine, of multi-ply formation with prominent grain direction of fibers.

Kraft, Fourdrinier: Containerboard made from kraft pulp on a Fourdrinier machine, basically of single ply formation, although possibly with supplementary second ply. The sheet is characterized by a more random orientation of fibers and is formed on a traveling endless wire screen which may also be vibrated.

Kraft Paper: A paper made predominantly from wood pulp produced by a modified sulfate pulping process. It is a comparatively coarse paper particularly noted for its strength, and in unbleached grades is used primarily as a wrapper or packaging material.

Kraft Pulp: Wood pulp resulting from a pulping process in which sodium sulfate is used in the caustic soda pulp-digestion liquor. Also known as sulfate pulp.

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Landfill Disposal Site (classification):
CLASS I - Complete protection is provided for all time for the quality of ground and surface waters from all wastes deposited therein and against hazard to public health and wildlife resources.
CLASS II - Protection is provided to water quality from Group 2 and Group 3 wastes. The types of physical features and the extent of protection of groundwater quality can divide Class II sites into several categories. Mixed municipal refuse is usually in Class II.
CLASS III - Protection is provided to water quality from Group 3 wastes (essentially the inert wastes) by location, construction, and operation which prevent erosion of deposited materials.

Laminates: Material that are made up of layers.

Laminator: A machine which adheres two or more plies of paper or fiberboard. For corrugated fiberboard, this usually encompasses laminated facings or corrugating medium to provide enhanced functional properties and/or more attractive graphics.

Leachate: Liquid that has percolated through solid waste or another medium and has extracted, dissolved, or suspended materials from it, which may include potentially harmful materials. Leachate collection and treatment is of primary concern at municipal waste landfills.

Lignin: an amorphous structure comprising 17-30% of wood. It is so closely associated with the holocellulose which makes up the balance of woody material that it can be separated from it only by chemical reaction at high temperature. It is believed to function as a plastic binder for the holocellulose fibers.

Liner: A creased fiberboard sheet inserted in a container and covering all side walls.

Linerboard: Paperboard used for the flat facings in corrugated fiberboard; also as the outer plies of solid fiberboard.

Litter: solid wastes that are scattered about in a wanton or careless manner.

Loading: Amount of foam applied to a given surface in relation to the thickness, density and ILD, and fragility level desired.

Localization: The customization of product for international requirements.

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Magnetic Fraction: that portion of municipal ferrous scrap remaining after the non-magnetic contaminants have been manually removed and the magnetic fraction washed with water and dried at ambient temperature or as required by ASTM C29.

Magnetic Separation: a system to remove ferrous metals from other materials in a mixed municipal waste stream. Magnets are used to attract the ferrous metals.

Magnetic Separator: a device used to remove iron and steel from a stream of materials.

Mandatory Recycling: programs which by law require consumers to separate trash so that some or all recyclable materials are not burned or dumped in landfills.

Manual Separation: the separation of recyclable or compostable materials from waste by hand sorting.

Mass Burn: a municipal waste combustion technology in which solid waste is burned in a controlled system without prior sorting or processing .

Master Carton: A carton which contains multiples of the same product.

Materials Recovery: where in the concept of resource recovery , emphasis is on placed on separating and processing waste materials for beneficial use or reuse. The materials usually referred to include paper, glass, metals, rubber, plastics or textiles. mechanical collector, - A device that separates entrained dust from gas through the application of inertial and gravitational forces.

Material Recovery Facility (MRF): a permitted solid waste facility which sorts or separates, by hand or by use of machinery, solid wastes or materials for the purposes of recycling, composting, or transformation.

Mechanical Separation: the separation of waste into various components using mechanical means, such as cyclones, trommels, and screens.

Medium: (See Corrugating Material or Corrugating Medium)

Methane: An odorless, colorless, asphyxiating, flammable and explosive gas (CH4) which can be formed by the anaerobic decomposition of organic waste matter. The major component of natural gas, it can be used as fuel. Found in landfill and pyrolysis gases.

Microorganisms: 1. Microscopically small living organisms that digest decomposable materials through metabolic activity. Microorganisms are active in the composting process. 2. Generally any living things microscopic in size, including bacteria, actinomycetes, yeasts, simple fungi, some algae, rickettsiae, spirochetes, slime molds, protozoans, and some of the simpler multicellular organisms.

Milled Refuse: solid waste that has been mechanically reduced in size.

Mixed Kraft Bags: consists of baled used kraft bags free from twisted or woven stock and other similar objectionable materials.

Modular Incinerator: smaller-scale waste combustion units prefabricated at a manufacturing facility and transported to the MWC facility site.

Mold: Device employed for manufacture of completed parts in various types of foam. Cost effective for large quantities. To date, this process most often used with polystyrene products.

MSW Composting: Municipal Solid Waste Composting, - the controlled degradation of municipal solid waste including after some form of preprocessing to remove non-compostable inorganic materials.

Mulch: ground or mixed yard wastes placed around plants to prevent evaporation of moisture and freezing of roots and to nourish the soil.

Municipal Aluminum Scrap: aluminum alloy product originating from municipal solid waste, not source separated, that is recovered from industrial, commercial or household wastes destined for disposal facilities.

Municipal Loose Combustible Material: (or municipal loose combustible organics - LCO's). Materials that consist of, but are not limited to, nonmetallic materials such as paper, rags, plastic, rubber, wood, food wastes, and yard or lawn wastes, etc., which are not permanently attached to noncombustible objects. LCO's are defined as materials larger than 12 mesh (US Standard Sieve). A determination of LCO's is best done by sampling, hand-picking, hand cleaning and visually identifying the materials described previously.

Municipal Recovery (Aluminum): the percent material recovered after an assay using the procedures prescribed in ASTM E-38 Specification.

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW): essentially household waste, and street refuse. Can include wastes from commercial establishments and institutions; but excludes industrial process wastes, demolition wastes, agricultural wastes, mining wastes, abandoned automobiles, ashes, and sewage sludge. In practice, specific definitions vary across jurisdictions. See Solid Waste.

Mutagenic: causing a change (mutation) in the DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid, the genetic "information") of a cell's chromosomes. A mutagen may also be a carcinogen.

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NCASI: National Council of the Paper Industry for Air and Stream Improvement.

NSTA: National Safe Transit Association. Developed performance test criteria for shipping packages in the late 1940's which are continually updated in the document entitled Pre-shipment Test Procedures.

Newsprint: a generic term used to describe paper of the type generally used in the publication of newspapers. The furnish is largely mechanical wood pulp, along with some chemical wood pulp.

NIMBY: acronym for "Not In My Back Yard" expression of resident opposition to the citing of a solid waste facility based on the particular location proposed.

Non-Combustible Waste: discarded materials incapable of combustion including metals, tin cans, foils, dirt, gravel, bricks, ceramics, glass, crockery, ashes.

Non-Combustibles: the components of a material which remain after combustion of all combustible matter including inert materials such as glass, dirt and sand and wholly oxidized metals.

Non-Salvageable: no longer usable in current or modifiable form.

Nuclear Static Eliminator: Create ions by the irradiation of the air molecules. Some models use a safe alpha emitting isotope to create sufficient ion pairs to neutralize a charged surface. The high speed particle interacts with air molecules with sufficient energy to actually strip off one of its outer electrons.

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Off Gas: gaseous products from chemical decomposition of a material.

Off-Spec or Off-Grade Virgin Plastics: resins that do not meet manufacturer's specifications.

Open Burning: uncontrolled burning of wastes in the open.

Open-Pile Method: open-air composting, either anaerobic or aerobic, accomplished by placing compostable materials in windrows, piles, ventilated bins or pits and turning it occasionally. Also called windrow method.

Optical Sorting: the use of photo cells to individually measure the reflectance of passing particles.

Organic: 1. Materials, containing carbon, which oxidize or burn easily; contain nitrogen, sulfur or both and usually give off odorous by-products. 2. Any compound that contains carbon and hydrogen (or other elements substituted for hydrogen). An organic compound can also be called a hydrocarbon. They include both naturally occurring and synthetic compounds.

Organic Waste: Waste material containing carbon. The organic fraction of municipal solid waste includes paper, wood, food wastes, plastics, and yard wastes.

Organochlorines: term for over 300 chlorinated compounds (TCDD, TCDF, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, etc.) formed in processes involving chlorine, wood lignin, and heat.

Osborne Separator: a device that utilizes a pulsed, rising column of air to separate small particles of glass, metal, and other dense items from compost. Also called a deglasser.

Over-Issue News: consists of unused over-run regular newspapers printed on newsprint, baled or securely tied in bundles, containing not more than the normal percentage of rotogravure and colored sections.

Overlaps: A design feature wherein the top and/or bottom flaps (usually outer only) do not butt but extend one over the other. The amount of overlap is measured from flap edge to flap edge.

Oxidation: the combination of a reactant with oxygen.

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Packaging Material: All components used in the protection, security and containerization of a finished product.

Pad: A corrugated or solid fiberboard sheet or other authorized material used for extra protection or for separating tiers or layers of articles when packed for shipment

Pallet: A transportation and storage device which accommodates multiple stacked items.

Pallet Flow: A storage device for horizontal pallet movement utilized in a hardware pick area. Provides pallet presentation to the front of a pick zone without the aid of a forklift.

Pallet Pool: a cooperative system for use and reuse on a lease basis for pallets of a common or established design that is managed by a National or International pallet company.

Pallet Reutilization: the effective use of pallet resources to maximize their potential life through designs, inspection, repair and reuse.

Pallet Standardization: the establishment of a limited number of specified designs and sizes required for all use within this company.

Panel: A 'face' or 'side' of a box.

Paperboard: general term descriptive of a sheet made of fibrous material (woodpulp, straw, paper stock or any combination thereof) on a paper machine.

Participation Rate: a measure of the number of people participating in a recycling program compared to the total number that could be participating.

Particulate Matter (PM): tiny pieces of matter resulting from the combustion process that can have harmful health effects on those who breath them. Pollution control at MWC facilities is designed to limit particulate emissions.

Partitions: A set of corrugated or solid fiberboard pieces slotted so they interlock when assembled to form a number of cells into which articles may be placed for shipment.

Pathogen: an organism capable of causing disease.

Percolate: 1. To ooze or trickle through a permeable substance. Ground water may percolate into the bottom of an unlined landfill. 2. A qualitative term that refers to the downward movement of water through soil, solid waste, or other porous medium.

Permeability: the capacity of a porous medium to conduct or transmit fluids. (ALT - A property measured by the rate of passage of a fluid (or gas) under a pressure gradient through a material.)

Permeable: having pores or openings that permit liquids or gasses to pass through.

Photo Master: A camera ready film negative used for printing labels.

Photodegradability: The primary attribute of a photodegradable material. Can be inherent in the material or imparted to the material by formulation, construction, or additive combinations.

Photodegradable: 1. A physical or chemical structure of a material capable of being broken down in reactions precipitated, initiated or driven by light, solely or in combination with other causative environmental factors within a specified time, under specific exposure conditions. 2. A process whereby the sun's ultraviolet radiation attacks the link in the polymer chain of plastic. The breaking of this link causes the plastic chain to fragment into smaller pieces, losing its strength and ability to flex and stretch. As the photodegradable plastic is subjected to the effects of the natural environment, the material is flexed, stretched and disintegrated into plastic dust.

Picklist: A document which identifies the product, customer and routing requirements to direct orders through the warehouse.

Pigment: A solid substance which is used to give color to other materials.

Pipeline: pipeline (sometimes called inventory pipeline) is often expressed in units of time (usually days). It defines the number of days of worth of reusable items, at a given point in time. Pipeline describes the number of items needed to support all parts of a reusable program (e.g., work-in-process, out & return shipping, inventory, and repairs).

Plant Waste: dunnage, shipping, packaging, storage, and general office waste. Not production or process wastes.

Plastic Recycling: a process by which plastic materials which would otherwise become solid waste are collected, separated, or processed and returned to the economic mainstream in the form of useful raw materials or products.

Ply: Any of several layers of solid fiberboard.

Point: Term used to describe the thickness or caliper of paperboard, a point being one thousandth of an inch.

Pollution: the condition caused by the presence in the environment of substances of such character and in such quantities that the quality of the environment is impaired or rendered offensive to life.

Polylam: Thin layers of expanded polyethylene foam laminated together to form a plank.

Polymeric: A substance made of plastic.

Porosity: The quality or state of being permeable, i.e., of sufficiently loose texture to permit passage of liquid or gases through pores. One measurement is the rate of air movement through a test specimen. The relationship between porosity of corrugated fiberboard and the action of vacuum cups on automatic equipment which opens, loads and seals boxes is often misunderstood.

Post Consumer Recycled Materials: Materials produced from products generated by a business or consumer which have served their intended end uses, and which have been separated or diverted from solid waste for the purpose of collection, recycling and disposition.

Post-Consumer Recycling: the reuse of materials generated from residential and commercial waste, excluding recycling of material from industrial processes that has not reached the consumer, such as glass broken in the manufacturing process.

Post-Consumer Waste (PCW): any waste product that has gone through its useful life, served the purpose for which it was intended and has been discarded by the user. This is in contrast to pre-consumer waste or scrap from manufacturing.

Potential: Measured in millivolts, volts, or kilovolts. Potential or voltage is measured from a base point. This point can be any voltage but is usually ground, which is theoretically zero voltage.

Pouch: A small or moderately sized bag like container constructed by the sealing on three edges of two flat sheets of flexible material or by sealing one end of a tube of flexible material.

Pre-Consumer Recycled Materials: Those materials that cannot be reused in the manufacturing process and would otherwise be disposed of as solid waste.

Pre-Consumer Waste: Materials discarded from industrial operations or derived from manufacturing processes.

Pre-Consumer Recycled Materials: those materials that cannot be reused in the manufacturing process and would otherwise be disposed of as solid waste.

Pre-Consumer Waste: materials discarded from industrial operations or derived from manufacturing processes.

Primary Manufacturing Residues: sawdust, chips, slabs and the like created from the basic conversion of roundwood into a lumber product. Sawmills and plywood and veneer mills are the principal operations creating primary manufacturing residues from their processing operations.

Primary Materials: - virgin or new materials used for manufacturing basic products. Examples include wood pulp, iron ore and silica sand.

Primary Package: the first layer of packaging that comes in direct contact with the part.

Primary Recycling: the return of a secondary material to the same industry from which it came and processing that material so that it will yield the same or similar product which it was originally as a secondary material. Examples are the return of broken glass containers to glass container manufacturing plants for making new containers and the recycling of sheet steel scrap to steel furnaces for the manufacture of new sheet steel.

Process Waste: the waste material from an industrial process. Examples of process wastes are flue gas scrubber sludges, cement kiln dusts, sawmill dust and powder, spent solvents, contaminated oils, etc.

Processing Wastes: any method, system, or other treatment designed to beneficially change the physical, chemical, form or content of waste material.

Product Fragility: Product ruggedness. Measurement takes the form of a damage boundary curve for shock and resonant frequency plot for vibration.

Product Package: See Box.

Product Stewardship: assuming responsibility for a product and it's packaging from conception to disposal.

Products of Combustion: the gases, vapors, and solids that result from the combustion of a material.

Pulverization: the crushing or grinding of material into very fine particle size.

Puncture Test: The strength of the material expressed in inch ounces per inch of tear as measured by the Beach puncture tester. (See UFC Rule 41, Section 3, and NMFC Item 222.)

Putrescible: organic matter capable of being decomposed by microorganisms.

Pyrolysis: the chemical decomposition of an organic material by heat in an oxygen deficient controlled environment. Results in destructive distillation and formation of combustible (hydrocarbon) gases, oils, char, and mineral matter.

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Quiet Zone: A clear space which preceded the start character of a bar code symbol and follows the stop character.

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Radio Frequency: Abbreviated RFI. A form of electromagnetic interference (EMI). Any electrical signal capable of being propagated and interfering with the proper operation of electrical or electronic equipment. The frequency range usually includes the entire electromagnetic spectrum. The spark from a static discharge is a source of RF interference.

Reaction mass: A mass, consisting of the impact surface and any other rigidly attached mass which reacts in an opposing manner to the forces produced during the impact of the dropping platen on the impact surface.

Rebond: Composed of shredded scrap polyurethane foam bonded together with adhesive. A relatively high density foam often used for pads or fabricated corner blocks.

Reclamation: 1. The restoration to a better or more useful state (such as land reclamation by sanitary landfilling), or the obtaining of useful materials from solid waste. 2. The recovery of a usable product from a waste following extensive pre-treatment.

Recoverable Resources: materials that still have useful physical or chemical properties after serving their original purpose and can be reused or recycled for the same or other purposes.

Recovered Materials: those materials which have known recycling potential, can be feasibly recycled, and have been diverted or removed from the solid waste stream for sale, use, or reuse, by separation, collection or processing.

Recovered Materials Post-Consumer (types):
I. Paper, paperboard, and fibrous wastes from retail stores, office buildings, homes, and so forth, after they have passed through their end uses as consumer items, including: Used corrugated boxes, old newspapers, old magazines, mixed waste paper, tabulating cards, and used cordage.
II. All paper, paperboard, and fibrous wastes that enter and are collected from municipal solid waste.

Recovered Materials, Pre-Consumer: those materials generated during any step in the production of a product and that have been recovered from or otherwise diverted from the solid waste stream, but does not include those materials generated from and commonly reused within an original manufacturing process.

Recovery: the process of retrieving materials or energy resources from wastes. Also referred to as extraction, reclamation, recycling, salvage.

Recyclable: waste material which is capable of being processed for subsequent use. Materials are only recyclable if there is a widely available economically viable collection, processing and marketing system for the material.

Recyclable materials: Packaging materials which otherwise would be processed or disposed of as solid waste which are capable of being collected, separated, or processed and reused or returned to use in the form of raw materials or products. Implies the existence of an infrastructure to accomplish the above objectives.

Recyclables: materials that still have useful physical or chemical properties after serving their original purpose and that can, therefore, be reused or remanufactured into additional products.

Recycled: Material which has already been reclaimed from a waste product and processed in order to regain material.

Recycled Content: the portion of a package's weight that is composed of recycled materials.

Recycled Material: material that has been collected, dropped off or brought back from post consumer sources that would otherwise be destined for the solid waste stream including but not limited to post consumer material, industrial scrap material, land overstock or obsolete inventories from distribution, wholesalers, and other companies, but not including those materials and by-products generated from, and commonly reused within an original manufacturing process, that are collected, dropped off or brought back and are re-fabricated into marketable end products.

Recycled Materials Broker: negotiates contracts for the purchase of processed material for resale to those who manufacture new products.

Recycled Plastic: 1) plastic products or parts of a product that have been reground for sale or use to a second party. 2) plastics composed of postconsumer material or recovered material only, which may or may not have been processed (reground, reprocessed).

Recycling: Any process by which solid waste, or materials which would otherwise become solid waste, are collected, separated, or processed and reused or returned to use in the form of raw materials or products.

Recycling Rate: the percentage by weight of a given package or packaging distributed for sale in a state that would otherwise be destined for the solid waste stream including but not limited to, post consumer material, industrial scrap material and overstock or obsolete inventories from distributors, wholesalers, and other companies, but not including those materials and by- products generated from, and commonly reused within an original manufacturing process, that are collected, dropped off or brought back and are refabricated into marketable products.

Refactory: a material that can withstand dramatic heat variations. Used to construct conventional combustion chambers in incinerators. Currently, waterwall systems are becoming more common.

Refuse: putrescible and nonputrescible solid wastes, except body wastes and including kitchen discards, rubbish, ashes, incinerator ash, incinerator residue, street cleanings, and market, commercial, office, and industrial wastes.

Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF): 1. fuel extracted from solid waste to be used for combustion processes or as feedstock to other process systems. 2. product of a mixed waste processing system in which certain recyclable and non-combustible materials are removed, and the remaining combustible material is converted for use as a fuel to create energy.

Refused Derived Fuel (RDF) Types:
RDF-l - Wastes used as fuel in as-discarded form with only bulky wastes removed.
RDF-2 - Wastes processed to coarse particle size with or without ferrous metal separation.
RDF-3 - Combustible waste fraction processed to particle sizes - 95 percent passing 2 inch square screening.
RDF-4 - Combustible waste fraction processed into powder form - 95 percent passing 10 mesh screening.
RDF-5 - Combustible waste fraction densified (compressed) into the form of pellets, slugs, cubettes or briquettes.
RDF-6 - Combustible waste fraction processed into liquid fuel.
RDF-7 - Combustible waste fraction processed into gaseous fuel.

Refuse Handling: the preparation of refuse for disposal or for conversion into something.

Refuse, Residential: all types of solid wastes that normally originate in the private home or apartment house. Also called domestic or household refuse.

Regrind, Plastic: plastic products or parts of a product that have been reclaimed by shredding and granulating for use in-house.

RSC (Regular Slotted Container): A container whose flaps are the same length and the lengthwise flaps meet at the center of the box. The space between the inner flaps varies, depending upon the relation to length and width of the box.

Repalletization: The transfer of materials from a pallet deemed to be unacceptable for further use because of damage, inferiority, or unusable size or design for the distribution system to a pallet of an acceptable design and condition.

Reprocessed, Plastic: regrind or recycled-regrind material which has been re-pelletized by extruding and chopped or formed into pellets for reuse (often called 'repro').

Reprocessing: changing the character of secondary materials (i.e., minor, such as crushing or shredding; major, such as biochemical conversion of cellulose into yeast).

Reorder Number: Same as the Part Number imprinted on label for identification.

Residential Waste: waste materials generated in single and multiple-family homes.

Residual Wastes: those materials (solid or liquid) which still require disposal after the completion of a resource recovery activity (e.g., slag and liquid effluents following a pyrolysis operation), plus the discards from front-end separation.

Resins: Usually polymers which are of a high molecular weight. Resins can be solid or semi-solid and can be either natural or synthetic in origin. In ink, a resin is the main ingredient which binds the various other ingredients together. It also aids adhesion to the surface.

Resistance: Electrical current encounters difficulty in passing through an electrical circuit or conductor. This difficulty can be measured and is called resistance.

Resistivity: A measure of the intrinsic ability of a material to conduct current. Its value is independent of the dimension of the material. Both conductors and non conductors have resistivity. The unit of volume resistivity is the ohm-cm. The unit of surface resistivity is ohms per square.

Resonance: That characteristic displayed by all spring/mass systems wherein at a given frequency the response acceleration of a component is greater than the input acceleration.

Resource Recovery: a term describing the extraction and utilization of materials and energy from the waste stream. The term is sometimes used synonymously with energy recovery.

Retention Basin: an area designed to retain runoff and prevent erosion and pollution.

Return, Refillable: containers that can be returned to the economic stream unchanged (except for minor processes such as cleaning and sanitizing) after having served their packaging purpose to the consumer. Examples include drums, barrels and several types of glass beverage bottles.

Returnable: the terms returnable and reusable are often used synonymously. In this guide they will be used interchangeably and have similar meanings.

Reusable: When applied to packaging, reusable means a container, package, or component of the container or package (e.g., a foam cushion, plastic bag, etc.) is capable of being used more than one time, without being significantly changed (i.e., used in its same physical form, requiring only minor repair or cleaning).

Reuse: 1. The use of a product more than once in its same form for the same purpose; e.g., a softdrink bottle is reused when it is refined to the bottling company for refilling. 2. The reintroduction of a package into the economic stream without any change.

Reuse Life: is the life of a reusable item. The life may be expressed in time (e.g., months or years) or in number of reuses, before the item can no longer be reused.

Rising Current Separator: a unit housing a flowing current of water to carry off or wash away organic materials such as food wastes, heavy plastics, and wood from a heavy fraction. The water is pumped upwards causing many materials, which normally would sink, to float and be removed.

Roll-Off Container: a large waste container that fits onto a tractor trailer that can be dropped off and picked up hydraulically.

Rubbish: a general term for solid waste (excluding food waste and ashes) taken from residences, commercial establishments, and institutions. (ALT - Nonputrescible solid wastes, including ashes, consisting of both combustible and noncombustible materials such as paper, corrugated fiberboard, metal cans, wood, glass, bedding, crockery or litter of any kind.)

Rule 41: A rule in the "Uniform Freight Classification" of the rail carrier containing requirements for corrugated and solid fiberboard boxes.

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Salvage: a quantity of materials, sometimes of mixed composition, no longer useful in its present condition or at its present location, but capable of being recycled, reused, or used in other applications. Salvage also refers to materials recovered after a calamity, such as materials obtained from a ship wrecked at sea or a building destroyed by fire.

Salvage: the act of saving or obtaining a secondary material, be it by pickup, sorting, disassembly, or some other activity.

Salvage and Reclamation: a refuse disposal process in which discarded materials are separated mechanically or by hand into various categories such as ferrous and nonferrous metals, rags, corrugated fiberboard, plastics, paper, glass, etc. for reuse or recycling as secondary raw materials.

Sanitary Landfill: a controlled method of disposing of refuse on land without creating nuisances or hazards to public health or safety, by utilizing the principles of engineering to confine the refuse to the smallest practical area, to reduce it to the smallest practical volume and to cover it with a layer of earth at the conclusion of each day's operation or at more frequent intervals. The technique includes careful preparation of the fill area, control of leachate and a specified volume of dirt to be spread over each volume of trash.

Sanitation: the control of all the factors in man's physical environment that exercise or can exercise a deleterious effect on his physical development, health, and survival.

Scavenger: one who illegally removes materials at any point in the solid waste management system.

Score: An impression or crease in corrugated or solid fiberboard to locate and facilitate folding.

Scrap: 1. Any solid trim, cutting or reject material which may be suitable as feedstock to the primary operation. Inplant or preconsumer waste. 2. Discarded or rejected industrial waste material often suitable for recycling.

Screen: a surface provided with apertures of uniform size. A machine provided with one or more screening surfaces to separate materials by size.

Screen Types:
ROTARY - an inclined, meshed cylinder that rotates on its axis and sifts materials placed in its upper end.
VIBRATING - an inclined screen that is vibrated mechanically and sifts materials placed on it.

Scrubber: common anti-pollution device that uses a liquid or slurry spray to remove acid gases and particulates from municipal waste combustion facility flue gases.

Seam: The junction created by any free edge of a container flap or wall where it abuts or rests on another portion of the container and to which it may be fastened by tape, stitches or adhesives in the process of closing the container.

Sector: a separating device that throws mixed materials onto a rotating shaft; heavy and resilient materials bounce off one side of the shaft, while light and inelastic materials land on the other and are cast in the opposite direction.

Secondary Material: a material that is utilized in place of a primary, virgin or raw material in manufacturing a product. Materials which might go to waste if not collected and processed for reuse.

Secondary Package: the second layer which contains one or more primary packages.

Secondary Process: where components separated from solid waste may be further processed to allow reuse in their original form or used in an entirely different form.

Secondary Recycling: the use of a secondary material in an industrial application other than that in which the material originated. An example is the reprocessing of newspapers and old corrugated boxes into container board for packaging or into construction paper.

Secondary Use: the use of a material in an application other than that in which it originated; however, the material is not changed significantly by processing and retains its identity. Examples are cotton clothing articles that are converted into wiping rags by being washed and cut to size; the use of steel cans in copper precipitation; and the use of rubber tires as dock bumpers. Materials used in this mode may end up as waste after their secondary use is completed.

Secure Landfill: a landfill designed to receive treated industrial wastes. It differs from a conventional sanitary landfill in the degree to which the site is engineered to diminish the migration of pollutants.

Segregation: separation or sorting into common groups.

Sensitivity: The minimum value which a sensor will effectively and reliably detect.

Separable Components: capable of being separated.

Separation: the systematic division of solid waste into designated categories.

Sheet: A rectangle of combined board - single or multiwall - untrimmed or trimmed, and possibly scored one way across the corrugations where such operation is done on the corrugator.

Shelf Life: The expected period of time that foam retains its original characteristics. Those characteristics include both cushioning properties and ESD, EMI, or RFI protection (if any).

Shell: A sheet of corrugated or solid fiberboard scored and folded to form a joined or unjoined tube open at both ends. Used as inner packing.

Shipper Reference Number: The reference number assigned by the shipper that identifies a package or group of packages (order) transported by a carrier.

Shipping Container: A container which is sufficiently strong to be used in commerce for packing, storing and transporting commodities.

Shredded Refuse: solid waste that has been physically reduced to smaller particles by shredding.

Shredder: a size reduction machine which tears or grinds materials to a smaller and more uniform particle size. Shredding process is also referred to as size reduction, grinding, milling, pulverization, hogging, granulating, breaking, macerating, chipping, crushing, cutting and rasping.

Shredding: a method of grinding or breaking down of a material to desired sized particles or fibers.

SKU (Stock Keeping Unit): General term for a product or part number handled in the distribution facility.

Slipsheet: A material handling device usually made of solid fiber or plastic variable thickness on which the product or materials are loaded and usually stretch wrapped for movement. This unit load is best handled with special handling equipment such as squeeze trucks or push/pull devices for loading, stacking and unloading.

Slit: A cut made in fiberboard sheet with out the removal of material.

Slit Score: A cut made in a fiberboard sheet extending through only a portion of the thickness.

Slot: A cut made in a fiberboard sheet, usually to form flaps and thus permit folding. Widths of one-fourth and three-eighths inch are common.

Sludge: 1. A mixture of liquids and solids which flows under normal conditions and can be pumped using standard pumping equipment or vacuum equipment. 2. A semi-liquid residue remaining from the treatment of municipal and industrial water and wastewater.

Sludge Farming: a process whereby waste sludges are spread onto land and ploughed into the soil. Nutrients are added and the deposited sludges are turned at frequent intervals to ensure continuing bacterial decomposition of the biodegradable wastes.

Soil: sediments or other unconsolidated accumulations of solid particles produced by the physical and chemical disintegration of rocks, and which may or may not contain organic matter. (ALT - The unconsolidated natural surface material present above bedrock; it is either residual in origin (formed by the in-place weathering of bedrock and decaying organic matter), or has been transported by wind, water, or gravity.)

Soil Amendment: an additive placed in the ground to enhance its performance or stabilize it to enhance crop growth or control.

Soil Liner: landfill liner composed of compacted soil used for the containment of leachate.

Solid Fiberboard: A solid board made by laminating two or more plies of containerboard.

Solid Waste: Useless, unwanted or discarded solid materials.

Solid Wastes: useless, unwanted or discarded solid materials with insufficient liquid content to be free flowing.(l) See also; trash, garbage, rubbish. Note: For specific forms of solid waste(s), refer to the following commonly used categories:
ASH - Residue from burning of combustible materials, may include extraneous non-combustibles, unburned carbon, as well as mineral matter inherent in the combustible material.
BULKY WASTE - large discarded materials; appliances, furniture, junked automobile parts, diseased trees, large branches, stumps, etc.
COMMERCIAL WASTE - from businesses, office buildings, apartment houses, stores, markets, theaters, hospitals and other institutional facilities.
COMBUSTIBLE WASTE - the organic content of solid waste, including paper, plastics, corrugated fiberboard, cartons, wood, boxes, textiles, bedding, leather, rubber, paints, yard trimmings, leaves, and household wastes; all of which will burn.
DOMESTIC REFUSE - putrescible and nonputrescible waste originating from a residential unit, and consisting of paper, cans, bottles, food wastes. May include yard and garden waste, also referred to as residential or household refuse.
FOOD WASTE - animal and vegetable discards from handling, storage, sale, preparation, cooking and serving of foods. Sometimes referred to as garbage; the putrescible constituent of refuse.
HAZARDOUS WASTE - any waste materials or combination thereof, which pose a substantial present or potential hazard to human health or living organisms because such wastes are non-degradable or persistent in nature, because they can be biologically magnified, because they can be lethal, or because they may cause or tend to cause detrimental cumulative effects. Includes, but is not limited to, explosives, pathological wastes, radioactive materials and chemicals which may be harmful to the public during normal storage, collection or disposal cycle. Sometimes referred to as special or unconventional waste. (Refer to DOT 40 CFR, Part 261).
INDUSTRIAL WASTE - discarded waste materials from industrial processes and/or manufacturing operations.
MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE (MSW) - domestic refuse and some commercial waste. Also referred to as mixed municipal refuse (MMR).
RESIDENTIAL WASTE - discarded materials originating from residences. Also called domestic or household refuse.
SPECIAL WASTE - requires special care and consideration in the storage, collection, handling/transportation and disposal cycle by reason of pathological, explosive, or toxic/hazardous properties. Sometimes referred to as unconventional waste.
TRASH - larger (non-putrescible) residential solid wastes unsuitable for routine pick-up by refuse collector.

Solid Waste Derived Fuel: fuel that is produced from solid waste that can be used as a primary or supplementary fuel in conjunction with or in place of fossil fuels. It can be in the form of raw (unprocessed) solid waste, shredded (or pulped) and classified solid waste, gas or oil derived from pyrolyzed solid waste, or gas derived from the biodegradation of solid waste. Also referred to as refuse derived fuel (RDF).

Solid Waste Disposal: disposal of all solid wastes through landfilling, incineration, composting, chemical treatment, and any other method which prepares solid wastes for final disposition.

Solid Waste Management: the purposeful, systematic control of the generation, storage, collection, transport, separation, processing, recycling, recovery and disposal of solid wastes. See also; integrated waste management.

Solid Waste Stream: the flow of trash and scrap materials from industry, and consumers for disposal usually through burning in incinerators or burial in sanitary landfills or dumping at sea .

Solvent: the liquid part of a solution existing in a larger amount than the solute (the substance being dissolved). A solvent can dissolve or disperse other substances. In inks, a solvent is the volatile part of a ink composition that evaporates during drying. In industrial usage, solvent usually refers to organic solvent, and as such refers to the class of volatile hydrocarbons used as dissolvers, viscosity reducers and cleaning agents.

Source Reduction: 1. The design and manufacture of products and packaging with minimum toxic content, minimum volume of material, and/or a longer useful life. 2. The elimination of packaging or reduction of the weight, volume and/or the toxicity of packaging.

Source Separated Recyclables: describes a process in which solid waste materials are produced as an autonomous waste product which are stored separately at the site of generation, or physically separated from all other solid wastes into recyclable, compostable, or other fractions at the site of generation.

Source Separation: sorting at the point of generation, specific discarded materials such as newspapers, glass, metal cans, plastics, vegetative matter, etc., into specific containers for separate collection.

Special Wastes: solid wastes that can require special handling and management, including, but not limited to, white goods, whole tires, used oil, mattresses, furniture, lead-acid batteries, and biological wastes.

Stack Emissions: air emissions from a combustion facility stacks.

Standard Test Conditions: Tests on paperboard and on boxes are almost always conducted in an atmosphere of 73F +/- 2F (23C +/- 1C) and 50% RH +/- 2% RH.

Static Charging: Caused by separation of surfaces, conductors and insulators with one surface acquiring a relative excess of electrons of negative ions with respect to the other surface.

Static Dissipative: a material that discharges in a controlled manner. The resistance range is 1 x 105 to 1 x 1012 ohms/squared.

Static Loading: The amount of loading that products of different weight will apply to a cushion. The weight of the applied mass, measured in pounds (kilograms), is divided by the area, measured in square inches (meters) results in static load (lbs/in2 or kg/m2)

Stitching or Stapling: Application of metal fasteners to form the joint of fiber boxes or to close boxes. Stitches are machine-formed using wire drawn from a spool. Staples are pre-formed.

Street Refuse: material picked up by manual and mechanical sweeping of streets and sidewalks, litter from public litter receptacles and dirt removed from catch basins.

Subtitle C: the hazardous waste section of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

Subtitle D: the solid, non-hazardous waste section of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

Subtitle F: section of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requiring the federal government to actively participate in procurement programs fostering the recovery and use of recycled materials and energy.

Surface Resistivity: The amount of which determines whether an ESD product is conductive, anti-static, or static shielding. Expressed in ohms per square.

Superfund: common name for the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) to clean up abandoned or inactive hazardous waste dump sites.

Suppliers: organizations who provide parts, products and components to a manufacturer.

Symbology: The bar code "language".

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Tape: A narrow strip of cloth or paper, sometimes having a filler or reinforcement, coated on one side with an adhesive. it is used to form the joint on a fiber box to close or reinforce such a box. Closure and reinforcement can also be effected with pressure-sensitive tape.

Teratogen: an agent or substance that may cause physical defects in the developing embryo or fetus when a pregnant female is exposed to that substance.

Termship: The data entry and billing function in the process of shipping an order.

Tertiary Package: this includes the shipping container and all additional internal dunnage materials if any.

Tertiary Recycling: where packaging material is recycled into a product other than a package or a packaging material.

Test: When not otherwise modified, refers to the bursting strength of linerboard and combined board except for those grades or corrugated fiberboard for which puncture test is substituted for bursting strength.

Test, Bursting Strength (Mullen): The resistance of a material to bursting expressed in pounds per square inch. The test is made on a motor driven Mullen tester.

Test, Compression: Involves the application of force applied by two flat surfaces of a machine to opposite faces of a box, such as top and bottom, the two ends or the two sides. Usually, the test is pre-formed on individual empty boxes, and measurement is taken of the load applied in pounds and the deflection or deformation in one-tenths of an inch. The test is related to the forces which filled boxes encounter while being transported and while stacked in warehouses.

Test, Drop: This determines the resistance of a filled container to shocks caused by dropping in certain ways (i.e., on corners, edges, faces, etc.) onto a solid surface. It measures how well a container and its inner packing (if any) will protect the contents against the handling encountered in shipping.

Test, Edgewise Compression (Short Column): This is a measure of the edgewise compressive strength of a short column of corrugated fiberboard. This property, in combination with the caliper or flexural stiffness of the combined board, relates to the top-to-bottom compressive strength of corrugated fiberboard shipping containers. (See UFC Rule 41, Section 3 and NMFC Item 222, Section 3.)

Test, Flat Crush: The force required to crush the corrugations in a specimen of combined board. Force is applied to the flat surfaces of the specimen and the load per square inch required to cause the corrugations to collapse is determined.

Test, Incline Impact (Conbur): Determines the resistance of a packaged item to damage from impact. In the test, the container, complete with contents, is positioned on the front end of a dolly which is released from a predetermined point on an inclined set of tracks to strike against a solid wall at the bottom. The impact force can be measured with a suitable shock recorder.

Test, Revolving Drum: Determines the resistance of a packaged item to shocks encountered by rotating inside a drum which is usually 7 feet in diameter and which has 6 flat faces. Baffles mounted in a standard design on the faces the box to fall on different sides, edges and corners as the drum is rotated.

Test, Vibration: This test subjects the container with contents to shaking or vibration and produces, on an accelerated basis, forces similar to those encountered in transportation.

Thermal Destruction: a group of waste disposal technologies using heat to break down hazardous organic wastes into less toxic constituents, ideally carbon dioxide and water. The two broad categories of thermal destruction technologies are incineration and pyrolysis.

Thermoplastic: Plastic that can be repeatedly softened by heating and hardened by cooling through a temperature range characteristic of the plastic, and that in the softened state can be shaped by flow into articles by molding or extrusion.

Thermoset: Plastic that, after having been cured by heat or others means, is substantially infusible and insoluble.

Tipping Fee: 1. A fee, usually dollars per ton, for the unloading or dumping of waste at a landfill, transfer station, recycling center, or waste-to-energy facility. 2. The charge for processing trash or solid waste at an incinerator or sanitary landfill. This is usually done on a weight basis but can also be on a volume or worst case basis.

Tipping Floor: unloading area for vehicles that are delivering municipal solid waste to a transfer station or municipal waste combustion facility.

Topsoil:- the topmost layer of soil; usually refers to soil that contains humus and is capable of supporting plant growth.

TPD: abbreviation for "Tons Per Day", usually referring to the capacity of a paper mill, refuse processing plant, landfill, etc. See also; "Tons Per Week" (TPW) and "Tons Per Year" (TPY).

Trace Quantities: usually, parts per million (PPM). One PPM is equivalent to one milligram per liter.

Transfer Station: a permanent place where waste materials are taken from smaller collection vehicles and placed in larger vehicles for transport, including truck trailers, railroad ears, or barges. Recycling and some processing may also take place at transfer stations.

Trash: generic term encompassing waste in general. Material considered worthless, unnecessary or offensive that is usually thrown away. Generally defined as dry waste material, but in common usage it is a synonym for garbage, rubbish, or refuse.

Triboelectric Charge: Pertaining to an electrical charge generated by frictional rubbing or separation of two surfaces.

Tub Grinder: machine to grind or chip wood wastes for mulching, composting or size reduction.

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Usables: secondary materials trade term meaning those items recovered from discards that are salable in their existing form as second-hand goods. Examples are re- usable boxes, wood crates, pallets, etc.

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Variable Container Rate: a charge for solid waste services based on the volume of waste generated measured by the number of containers set out for collection.

Velocity Change: The difference in a system's velocity magnitude and direction from the start to the end of a shock pulse. It is the integral of the acceleration vs. time pulse and is directly related to drop height.

Vibration Test: Unit is placed on shake table and vibrated for a period of time at levels which replicate the chosen mode of transportation.

Violation: deviation from or noncompliance to specified requirements .

Virgin Material: Material derived from substances mined, grown, or extracted from water or the atmosphere.

Volume Reduction: the processing of waste materials so as to decrease the amount of space the materials occupy, usually by compacting or shredding (mechanical), incineration (thermal), or composting (biological).

Volume Reduction Plant: includes, but is not limited to, incinerators, pulverizers, compactors, shredding and baling plants, transfer stations, composting plants, and other plants which accept and process solid waste for recycling or disposal.

Volume Resistivity: The ratio of the DC voltage per unit of thickness, applied across two electrodes in contact with or imbedded in a specimen, to the amount of current per unit area passing through the system. Volume resistivity is generally given in ohm centimeters.

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Waste Exchange: a computer and catalog network that redirects waste materials back into the manufacturing or reuse process by matching companies generating specific wastes with companies that use those wastes as manufacturing inputs.

Waste Processing: an operation such as shredding, compaction, composting or incineration, in which the physical or chemical properties of wastes are changed.

Waste Reduction: reducing the amount or type of waste generated. Sometimes used synonymously with Source Reduction.

Waste Stream: a term describing the total flow of solid waste from homes, businesses, institutions and manufacturing plants that must be recycled, burned, or disposed of in landfills; or any segment thereof, such as the "residential waste stream" or the "recyclable waste stream."

Wastes: useless, unwanted or discarded materials resulting from natural community activities. Wastes include solids, liquids, and gases. Solid wastes are classed as refuse. (ALT - The term in the secondary materials industry is used to differentiate between virgin materials and secondary materials, as in the phrase "waste paper". The word is used in this sense as a substitute for words like; secondary, scrap or junk. Some apply the term to materials in the process of being made acceptable for industrial consumption. Thus, paper may be waste paper as recovered, but becomes paper stock when it has been graded and baled for shipment to a paper mill.) Note: see also specific types of waste such as; bulky waste, construction and demolition waste, hazardous waste, special waste, and yard waste.

Water Borne Inks, Coatings: coatings which contain substantial amounts of water with up to 80 percent of the volatiles being water. The polymers used to make the solids component can be dissolved, dispersed or emulsified. In industrial water-borne coatings, the formulations commonly contain 40 to 50 percent water, 10 percent organic solvents and 40 to 50 percent solids.

Water Table: level below the earth's surface at which the ground becomes saturated with water. Landfills and composting facilities are designed with respect to the water table in order to minimize potential contamination.

Waterwall Incinerator: Waste combustion facility utilizing lined steel tubes filled with circulating water to cool the combustion chamber. Heat from the combustion gases is transferred to the water. The resultant steam is sold or used to generate electricity.

Weight of Facings: (Minimum combined, of corrugated board.) This is the summation of weight per thousand square feet of all facings in the board structure excluding the weight of coatings and impregnates and excluding the weight of the corrugating medium and the corrugating adhesive.

Wet Scrubber: anti-pollution device in which a lime slurry (dry lime mixed with water) is injected into the flue gas stream to remove acid gases and particulates.

Wetland: area that is regularly wet or flooded and has a water table that stands at or above the land surface for at least part of the year. Coastal wetlands extend back from estuaries and include salt marshes, tidal basins, marshes , and mangrove swamps. Inland freshwater wetlands consist of swamps, marshes, and bogs. Federal regulations apply to landfills cited at or near wetlands.

White Goods: inoperative and discarded refrigerators, ranges, water heaters, freezers, and other similar domestic and commercial large appliances.

Windrow: a large, elongated pile of composting material.

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Yard Waste: leaves, grass clippings, prunings, and other natural organic matter discarded from yards and gardens. Yard wastes may also include stumps and brush, but these materials are not normally handled at composting facilities.

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modified 3/13/02